Rus Articles Journal

Graphite or decanter?

So graphite or decanter? Both that, and another. As it is two different allotropic modifications carbon. Exists near of 400 thousand inorganic substances . The number of known of organic compounds much more exceeds 10 million and increases every year by 250-300 thousand. Here how many nasintezirovala!!

I will notice that chemists are the only scientists from scientists who create to themselves objects of research . It is everything from more than hundreds of chemical elements.

I always say that the phase is more mobile than an element. So, about concept a phase . Strictly.

A thermodynamic phase - thermodynamic the part of thermodynamic system, uniform in structure and properties, separated from other phases by interfaces (not always, there are cases of partial amorphicity - a comment of the author), on which jump some properties of system change.

Other definition: A phase - homogeneous part of heterogeneous system . In unicomponent system different phases can be presented by various aggregate states or different polymorphic modifications of substance. The multicomponent system of a phase can have various structure and structure.

Gas always consists of one phase, liquid can consist of several liquid phases of different structure (a likvation, liquid not miscibility), but two different liquids of one structure in balance cannot coexist.

Substance in a firm state can consist of several phases, and some of them can have identical structure, but various structure ( polymorphism - existence of crystal substances with identical structure, but different structure; polymorphism for simple substances call allotropy ).

As division into thermodynamic phases - smaller classification of states, than division according to aggregate states of substance, not each phase transition is followed by change of an aggregate state. However any change of an aggregate state is phase transition.

An example with carbon. One element. And how many gives phases? Eight!!

the First - diamond . Very firm.
the Second - graphite . What do they differ in? Structure. As a result absolutely different materials. We can write with a pencil from graphite notes. By the way, the pencil played a huge role eliminations of illiteracy in Russia. Armande Hammer - the American businessman - made to himself a fortune in postrevolutionary Russia, having constructed pencil factory of Sacco and Vanzetti. By means of these pencils Russia from almost completely illiterate country turned in the most reading, and by means of SMS and a chat on the Internet turns into illiterate again. Back to pencils!!
the Third - karbin - an allotropic form of carbon on the basis of sp - hybridizations of carbon atoms. Consists of carbon fragments with threefold (- C ≡ C-C ≡ With -) or double cumulative (= C=C=C=C =) communication. Can be linear or form cyclic structures.
the Fourth - lonsdeylit , or diamond hexagonal (the most solid substance, for 58% surpassing diamond in hardness).
the Fifth - amorphous carbon. It has no distant order.
the Sixth - fulleren - C 60-540 . Completely is called bakminsterfulleren. The convex closed polyhedrons made of even number of three-coordinate atoms of carbon. Are obliged by the name to the designer Richard Bakminster Fuller, applying to construction of domes of the buildings of five - and the hexagons which are the basic structural elements of molecular frameworks of all fulleren. In fulleren it is possible to enter various metals. The turning-out materials show properties from dielectrics to superconductors! For opening of fulleren of H. Kroto, R. Smolli and R. Kerlu in 1996 the Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded.
the Seventh - a decanter (English graphene). On - scientific, it is the two-dimensional allotropic modification of carbon formed by a layer of the atoms of carbon thickness in one atom which are in sp 2 - hybridizations and connected by means of σ - and π - communications in a hexagonal two-dimensional crystal lattice. High mobility of carriers of a charge (the maximum mobility of electrons among all known materials) does to
it by perspective material for use in the most various appendices, in particular - as future basis of a nanoelectronics and possible replacement of silicon in integrated chips.
of the Main of the ways of receiving a decanter existing now is based on a mechanical otshchepleniye of layers of graphite from pyrolitic graphite, for example, with the help … an adhesive tape. This method does not assume use of large-scale production as it is manual procedure (return to verevochno - sealing wax science). For “the best practices with two-dimensional material - the decanter“ to A. K. Geym and K. S. Novosyolov awarded the Nobel Prize on physics for 2010.
the Eighth - when turning a decanter in the cylinder turns out a one-wall nanotube. Depending on the concrete scheme of turning of the graphite plane, a nanotube can possess either metal, or semiconductor properties.

As, however, usual carbon, isn`t that so is many-sided!