Whether there is medicine for an old age?
It seems that is. It is enzyme of a telomeraz . A telomere (from Greek t é los - the end and m é ros - part, a share) - a trailer site (segment) of a chromosome .
At the beginning of 60 - x years the American scientist L. Heyflik found out that at cultivation in a nutrient medium out of an organism of in vitro normal somatic cells of the person are capable to share only limited number of times. The limit number of divisions depended on age of the one who possessed the cages taken in culture. So, cages from newborn children could pass 80 - 90 divisions while cages from 70 - summer old men shared only 20 - 30 times. The maximum number of cellular divisions is called “Heyflik`s limit“ .
In 1971 the Russian scientific A. M. Olovnikov assumed that at the heart of the limited potential of doubling of the normal somatic cages growing in culture of in vitro , gradual shortening of chromosomes of DNA at each replication can lie. Loss of trailer sequences at replication of DNA is one of the reasons of aging and death of somatic cages. He also assumed that in cages of the organisms breeding in the vegetative way, and also in germinal, stem, sexual and beyond all bounds the cancer cells which are long sharing in culture , the problem of trailer replication is resolved due to existence of the special biological mechanism. This hypothesis was confirmed with opening in 1985 of a telomeraza - enzyme (the biological catalyst) capable to increase the ends of linear molecules DNA - carriers of genetic information. Joint effect of enzymes of replication and a telomeraza provides continuity of genetic material in generations of cages and organisms.
In the differentiated somatic cages as of in vivo , and cultivated of in vitro , the telomeraza does not work and telomeres are constantly shortened. Shortening a telomere can play a role of the hours counting number of cell divisions. On reaching the critical length of telomerny DNA processes of a stop of a cellular cycle are started. The organism grows old and dies. “For opening of how telomeres and enzyme of a telomeraz protect chromosomes“, the Nobel Prize on physiology and medicine for 2009 is handed by
to three American scientists: E. Blekbern, to D. Shostak, K. Greyder. Did not remember A. M. Olovnikov though he is quite living research associate.
Aging of an individual is the normal biological function promoting progressive evolution of the look breeding sexually. Pressure of natural selection weakens after achievement by an organism of reproductive success. The death from an old age deletes from population of the ancestors who played a role and gives a scope to descendants - carriers of new useful signs. As any important biological function, aging it is caused by parallel operation of several molecular mechanisms. Switching off of a telomeraza - only one of them.
There is no cure for death, but from cancer can appear! The fact that introduction to cancer cells of the preparations blocking activity of a telomeraza leads to shortening a telomere and the subsequent death of cages gives hope for emergence of new means of fight against cancer. The understanding of the mechanism of work of a telomeraza, and, above all, regulation of its activity in a cage, will bring closer us to understanding of processes and malignant transformation of cages, and aging.
But whether so immortality is necessary? at seminars even seventeen-year-old students answer this question unambiguously. How? The death of the individual is necessary that the immortal mankind or what it will be transformed over time to developed. As old times Plutarch used to say: “We would die if we did not perish“. In youth we it is cleverer, and we become over the years more educated. In any case: Memento mori - remember death .
And what was told about it by classics?
Seneca Jr. : “It is gods arranged so that everyone can take away from us life, but nobody is able to relieve us of death“.
The gospel from Ioann , 12, 24: “Amen, amen I speak to you: if grain pshenichno fall to the ground not to an oumreta, then common you stay: if you oumrt, many a fruit create“.
Lao Dza : “Who died, but is not forgotten, that is immortal“.
A. Strugatsky : “Death, dear companions, this most interesting adventure which we will test in life“.
D. Swift : “All people want to live long, but nobody wants to be old“.
M. Bulgakov : “The person is mortal, and it would be still half-troubles. Badly the fact that it is sometimes suddenly mortal …“
Confucius : “How we can know what is death when we do not know still what is life?“
E. Lets : “The first condition of immortality - death“.