What does the reason give to the text?
If at once and shortly - punctuation marks. Toropyg and the predubezhdenets ready now to grab the axe and to wail: “the author did not understand that the main thing...“, I will ask to pass to asterisks at once and to put the unit, without trying to din into the dull author something there. The author all the same will not understand. Because writes not for you - but for the clever and thoughtful true and future friends who are adjusted on communication and understanding.
Here also I suggest to try to take them some paragraph and to relieve it of points - commas. Yes though classical “to execute it is impossible to pardon“. What gives reason to a verdict? One and only comma.
And all so often it is necessary to face sincere indignation: “Why these commas are necessary!“ And also - points, points with commas, two - and dots, a dash, quotes... All this variety of punctuation marks brings bitter pleasure grammar - Nazi, feeling as the few True in the ocean incorrect. But - burdens school students, enters adults into disappointment.
Someone from sufferers called these points and flourishes punctuation marks obviously. Because “punctuation“ in ancient Russian had a shade negative and meant an obstacle, a hindrance, even a footboard three hundred years ago. And “prepinatel“ is not the professional arranger of points and zapyatushka in manuscripts, and - “the deceiver, the swindler, the intriguer“.
Unlike the dictionary of the 11-17th centuries, separately the word “punctuation“ does not consider the modern explanatory dictionary of Russian, and only as a part of a set expression “punctuation marks“ - as designation of set of the graphic signs which are used in written language for streamlining of the text for its organization.
History of formation of a punctuation testifies: intellectuals tensely worked on that information of the written text found all advantages inherent in written language, without having lost “rationality“, clearness of oral speech. Having thought up writing, the person understood: it is necessary to make the text clear not at the level of signs, and at the level of phrases. That “the speech with the speech would not be weaved“ that the word did not connect to a pretext that “also“ differed from “also“ - first of all the person invented a point. Then thought: for some needs it is possible to use two, three, four points, in different combinations - a vertical colon, chetverotochiy - rombiky.
Ancient Russia acquired punctuation marks from the Byzantine texts. Following the spiritual teachers, the Russian intellectuals a century after a century improved a punctuation.
In the 11th century they managed one or several points (a little later - and a comma which purpose happened different, including - and for division of words when a comma, as well as a point, put after each word). Later the system developed, exercised the wit.
L. V. Cherepnin in the academic work “Russian Paleography“ lists the following punctuation marks from manuscripts of the 16-17th centuries: a comma, underframes (semicolon), a pribylets (an exclamation mark) added, a point, a polozhitelnaa, a kendema, a kavyka, a slogiya, a statia, a stishitsa, otrikal. Also notes: during that time there were already special managements explaining how to use punctuation marks. Such managements called ability to correctly use these signs (“you will put razumet where will stand till the end in the writing a comma“) “istinnosloviy“.
Perhaps the problem of that multiguilty which I in the first paragraph haughtily eliminated worthy readers also consists in it? Without knowing in a due measure language, they do not possess also ability to read and understand the text? And then, muchas and straining, try to explain to me how they understood me? Being ashamed of the snobbery and regretting for turned off, I will try to help a practical advice.
To them, kind people, I suggest to remember the school childhood first of all. Those signs to which we were taught at school are grammatical punctuation marks. “From the picture in your abc-book“ we firmly acquired: the end is put at the end of the offer... Still us learned to put an end, finishing heading. This mean habit, it is remembered, it was necessary from itself on a drop to squeeze out - as Chekhov the slave...
And further, after the abc-book, - it is more: the comma divides homogeneous parts of the sentence... If the offer begins with “if“, before it is necessary to put a comma... Many broke, without having managed to orient when before “and“ the comma is necessary and when - it is prohibited...
Whether long, shortly, but taught us to put and read at school these points - commas. And for this purpose, who with elements of language lives in a consent, punctuation marks - not an obstacle, not a hindrance and not a trick, and, on - Chekhovian, “notes at reading“.
Commas differentiate parts of compound sentences, allocate the isolated designs in the offer. Dashes replace the passed sentence parts, mark semantic pauses. Quotes make out the direct speech, quotes. Interrogative - exclamatory (yes, and points!) introduce in the text of emotion.
Generally, I will stop retelling the textbook, reporting about the opportunities of punctuation marks documented, so to speak. That who goes for USE rules drummed teachers. And that to whom USE does not threaten, I will advise to forget about textbooks - and to believe that commas can be placed by means of reason and imagination. As punctuation marks still happen “semantic“, “intonational“ - personal, wholly characterizing writing.
Simply speaking - as simply I also spoke concerning many articles on ShZh which authors are shy or negligent with punctuation marks, - read the text aloud that is called - with expression. Trust in the intuition - and where “expression“ does pauses, - put commas. And where it demands a pause bigger - make it, having put in the text of a dash.
Here so - trusting itself, listening to itself - it is possible to learn to equip the texts by means of punctuation marks.
And all one rule it would be desirable to remind: do not put commas after “however“ at the beginning of the offer! Only not after “however“!!! As here the intuition and imagination do not help. To reflect thoughtfully though orally though in writing, after “however“ - doing the corresponding pause - pulls very many. At the reader by itself the hero of jokes emerges in memory - it is necessary to you?
On this subject there is absolutely simple council: to avoid difficult designs, difficult phrases where you for certain will be mistaken (for example, participial phrases). Manage, however, without “however“.