For what forbade “let`s overcome Barmaley“ and K. Chukovsky`s “Bibigon“?
B 1930 - x in the highest echelons of the Soviet power go years cruel fight of different party groups. We know a result of this fight - left and right “biases“ were crushed, and Stalin surely became stronger in the head of state. Got under a rating and many revolutionary “excesses“.
Society slowly began to come back to traditional values (of course, with big amendments). It concerned and children`s culture. Paedologists were expelled from the sphere of education, New year began to be celebrated and the fir-tree ceased to mean “a subject of religious education“, rehabilitated also a fairy tale genre.
A. Boym`s article about “Doctor Aybolit“ of K. Chukovsky published in “Komsomolskaya Pravda“ in 1936 is indicative in this plan:
“A grief - teachers and stale aunts from narkompros tried to deprive our children of the vivifying juice carried by fairy tales for a number of years. Expelling a fantasy from children`s books, they thought that they create very revolutionary business. Feeble-minded tutors considered necessary to fill children with naked “political“ slogans, in essence blocking from children “all richly versatile world of reality. If one “ultraleftists“ preached the silly anti-Lenin theory of dying off of school, then others etched from children`s books all bright and fantastic at this time...“. However by then the creative spirit of Chukovsky was already undermined by
. More than 10 years from under its feather any original fairy tale practically does not appear. And only in tragic 1942, being in evacuation in Tashkent, Korney Ivanovich begins to write one of the most unusual to it fairy tales - “Let`s overcome Barmaley“. She is written, probably, “with a scratch“ and without special inspiration.
K. Chukovsky, diary, 01. 04. 1942:
“Birthday. Exactly LX years. Tashkent. Gifts at me to birthday such. A bean was missing. The last letter from it - of October 4 of last year from - under Vyazma. Kolya - in L-. With the injured leg, on the most dangerous front. Kolya - became a homeless: its apartment was destroyed by bombing. At me, obviously, all my giving - with all library burned down in Peredelkino, to - to Rui I collected all life. And with such cards on hands I have to write the cheerful victorious fairy tale“.
Probably, for the first time for all the creative career Chukovsky tries to adapt the talent of the storyteller for requirements of time - to write “the first anti-fascist fairy tale for the smallest“ . Action develops in the fantastic country of Aybolitiya near which Svirepiya`s kingdom where governs Barmalya is located.
To work on the fairy tale there is everything - from language of military reports to the fragments excluded from the early typewritten version of “Aybolit“. It is about a scene when mighty and wild animals do not let to the doctor of other animals and then that refuses to treat them ( “Go to yourself, angry! Only kind are treated by me. You, the blood-sucker, I do not want to Treat.“ ). As a result between the countries war which goes enough krovavo and with variable success begins.
“Tanks, tanks, tanks,
A behind them on wolves
With mortars in hands rush.
... Yes over us the plane,
On the plane - a hippopotamus,
U of that at a hippopotamus
the Skorostrelny machine gun.
It flies over a bog,
Flies low-level flight,
Is slightly lower than poplars,
I scribbles from a machine gun
In the frightened children“.
Chukovsky actually directly transfers military realities to the fairy tale. Grasshoppers conduct investigation, cranes shoot down enemy planes, and “fighting labor“ bees sting Barmaley.
“... And at the city of En - En of
We took a gorilla prisoner
I saved five hundred seals
From the destroyed settlements“.
At the most critical moment from the far “country of heroes“ of Chudoslaviya is... who would you think?... Vanya Vasilchikov! If you remember, Chukovsky once in a temper refused to turn “the hero of the bourgeois world“ into the Komsomol member. Now he decided that you should not break, and obviously “Soviet“ Vanya rescues Aybolitiya. In this fairy tale of Chukovsky do not stand on ceremony with enemies, and just put Barmaley to a wall.
“You are a traitor and the murderer,
the Marauder and the fleecer! You listen to
, the blood-sucker,
the National sentence: to SHOOT down
of the HATED PIRATE
WITH the SUBMACHINE GUN
I at once in quiet morning autumn, At eight o`clock in revival
a sentence Was carried out by
“Let`s overcome Barmaley“ became the longest and at the same time to the most unsuccessful (to tell more precisely, inorganic) the fairy tale of the writer. And though in 1942 this “actual“ and (what to speak) skillfully worked fairy tale was printed in “The pioneer truth“, and in 1943 and the separate edition, it did not save it from attacks. As it is sad, this time the part of arguments of critics had sensible grain. Here it is necessary to understand that the fairy tale was published in the heat of war, and similar giving really it could be perceived as the parody or a caricature. In “Truth“ and “Literature and art“ for 1944 the fairy tale christened “clownish slaughter“, “an attraction in a zoo“ .
Unfortunately, similar articles in “Truth“ always were more, than criticism, and meant a direct ban. At first Chukovsky fights, collects signatures in protection, quarrels with Marshak who considers the fairy tale unsuccessful and refuses to support the colleague. Everything is useless, and Chukovsky writes the next “penitential“ letter.
Is indicative that in 1953 when Chukovsky was fallen in love again by critics, he nevertheless will write down in the diary: “I re-read “let`s overcome Barmaley“ and the fairy tale awfully was not pleasant to me“ . From it the writer will publish the most successful and “inspired“ pieces in the form of separate poems - “Aybolit and Vorobey“ and “Pleasure“ ( “Are glad, glad, glad Light birches, And roses Grow by them for pleasure...“ ).
“Bibigon“ - about the brave and self-confident boy - the Liliputian, constructed on a combination of prose and poetry became the last full fairy tale of Chukovsky. In the summer of 1945 the writer transferred the fairy tale to the Murzilka magazine, and then began to read it on radio. “Bibigon“ had a huge response at children - letters went bags and gifts to the little squabbler were sent.
“Nina Melnikova sent it a knitted warm suit - very elegant jacket and perfectly sewed trousers which not without effort I could pull on two fingers. Eight-year-old Natasha Orlovskaya sewed for his sister a dress from white silk. And Borya Salnikov sent it in a self-made envelope a sword from candy paper“.
Nothing “social“ in the fairy tale was, but also here Chukovsky was not lucky.
In 1946 during the next inner-party dismantling which consequence turned out to be also known Resolutions “About Zvezda and Leningrad magazines under distribution got also “Bibigon“.
S. Krushinsky “Serious shortcomings of children`s magazines“, “Truth“, 29. 08. 1946:
“Cannot be assumed that under the guise of the fairy tale in the children`s magazine leisure authors dragged obvious nonsense. With similar nonsense under the guise of the fairy tale the writer Korney Chukovsky acts in the children`s magazine “Murzilka“ … Ridiculous and foolish incidents follow one another … The bad prose alternates with bad verses.... Naturalism, primitivism. In “fairy tale“ there is no imagination, and there is only one trick. The inkwell at the writer big, and editorial office of the Murzilka magazine is not legible“ .
The publication of the fairy tale in “Murzilka“ immediately was interrupted, and the frightened head of radio even burned letters of children.
From K. Chukovsky`s diary:
of “Bibigon“ was torn off on the most interesting place. - The main thing, while the evil triumphs, the fairy tale is printed. But where the outcome begins, - it was not given to children, concealed, deprived of children of that moral satisfaction what the good victory over the evil gives them“ .
It was the last blow for Chukovsky. It is more from - under its feather there will be no fairy tale. And at the beginning of 1950 - x it seemed to him that it forever dropped out of children`s literature. In the article “Truths“ for April 16, 1951 devoted to Detgiz`s tasks, the name of Chukovsky is not even mentioned.
To the next wave of public recognition there were two years.
But about it is in following - final part of a cycle of articles about Chukovsky.