Rus Articles Journal

From where undertook Barmalya and what is Limpopo?

the First poetic fairy tale where the kind doctor and his antagonist appeared, became “Barmalya“ (it is published in 1925) . The villain is obliged by the name to Barmaleevaya Street to which somehow came during walk across Leningrad Chukovsky and the artist M. Dobuzhinsky.

K. Chukovsky, “Chukokkala“:
“- Why at this street such name? - I asked. - What it was for Barmalya? Ekaterina the Second lover? General? Grandee? Court doctor? there is no
- - Dobuzhinsky surely rendered. - It was the robber. Famous pirate. Here write - about it the fairy tale. It was here such. In a cocked hat, with such usishcha. - And, having taken out an albomchik from a pocket, Dobuzhinsky drew Barmaley. Having come back home, I composed the tale of this robber, and Dobuzhinsky decorated it with charming drawings“.

“Barmalya“ - probably, one of the most reckless fairy tales of the writer, not without reason he called it “operetta“, “the adventure story for small children“.

To. Chukovsky, “Workbook“, 1924 - 1926: “The tale of Barmaley I called
the operetta because it consists of a number of the lyrical arias connected parodiyno by the apprehended drama plot. But, of course, it is the operetta not vocal, but purely verbal as, in my opinion, in children from the earliest age it is necessary to cultivate feeling not only a musical, but also poetic rhythm. To this task I tried to serve as all the children`s books as the phonetics is nominated in them to the first place (and to any change of a plot there corresponds change of a rhythm). But I write the verbal operetta for the first time....
... By “Barmalya“ it is written, so to speak, from polemic. Somehow among teachers conversation that the adventurous story is available only 13 - 15 - to summer teenagers came and that small children of years of five as if for it did not ripen. Left so that all these of Bussenara and Kupera are specially adapted for children of that age which corresponds to that period of history of human race when the person was nomady - the nomad as the love to the nature is not peculiar to them yet“.

Despite the morals opening the tale of why children should not walk across Africa, Tanechka and Vanechk not only on it walk, but also behave extremely on - boorishly. In initial edition children were even more impudent - they ride a tail of a gorilla (generally a gorilla tailless) and threaten “to set lamps“ to Barmaley. Then Barmalya quite fairly is going to roast them on a fire. By the way, in the early version and in the first drawings the cannibal is represented on - African “swarthy“, as well as the king Dzholinginki at Loftinga (subsequently the Black description, for obvious reasons, will disappear).

But here to the aid of impudent children doctor Aybolit arrives. It does not treat anybody and to Barmaley here yet not the rival therefore too it appears in a fire. However some authority at animals Aybolit has, and he is come to the rescue by a well-known Crocodile. Further it is known - corrective term in a crocodile stomach and “on freedom with a clear conscience“.
As you can see, from Loftinga in this fairy tale did not remain almost nothing.

The same concerns also the second poetic tale of Aybolit which with “Dulittl“ is united by only an outline of travel of the doctor to Africa, with the purpose to cure animals.

K. Chukovsky:
“The inspiration gushed over me in the Caucasus - extremely ridiculously and inopportunely - during bathing in the sea. I swam away quite far, and suddenly under delusion of the sun, hot wind and the Black Sea wave I by itself had words:

Oh, if I drown,
If I go to a bottom...

Stark naked I ran on the stony coast and, having hidden behind the next rock, began wet hands to write down poetic lines on the wet tissue box rolling right there at the water, and at once in some hour outlined lines twenty or more. Began, the fairy tale had no end“.

during treatment in Kislovodsk in 1928 supervision over people around gave rise to one more quatrain at Chukovsky.

“And around sick, pale thin
Cough and groan, cry and shout -
are colts, small children.
Is a pity, it is a pity for little poor colts“.
the fairy tale was finished and published by

In 1929 in the Yozh magazine - the truth, under absolutely other name...

Still travel agencies of the Republic of South Africa are perplexed concerning strange attractiveness for the Russian tourists of the uninviting small river under the name Limpopo. “Limpopo“ was the first name of the fairy tale “Aybolit“. The name of the small river came from “Elephant calf“ of R. Kipling who was translated by Chukovsky. It became the first long word which was pronounced by his daughter Moura (Maria), and among children of the writer and a peculiar synonym of the word it is “good“.

“Here also it cured them,
of Limpopo!
Here also cured patients.
of Limpopo!
I went they to laugh,
of Limpopo!
I to dance and play about,
of Limpopo!“
the Amusing phonetics of the word was much more important than

for Chukovsky, than geographical realities. If you begin to verify when reading “Aybolit“ an arrangement of places on the card, then will fairly be taken aback.

“We live on Zanzibar,
In Kalakhari and the Sahara,
On Fernando`s the mountain - On,
Where walks Gippo - on
Across wide Limpopo“.

is Very much impressed also by a bunch of diseases at animals:

“Both measles, and a diphtheria at them,
I smallpox, and bronchitis at them,
I the head hurts them,
I a neck hurts“.

and nonconventional methods of treatment of Aybolit.

“Also Aybolit to begemotika runs,
I claps them on tummies,
I one after another
Gives all a chocolate,
I puts and puts them thermometers!“

But all this little readers perfectly understand.

By the way, the typewritten Limpopo version differed from published quite strongly. In - the first, in it there was a villain Barmalya attacking the doctor on the way again. In - the second, practically for the first time in children`s creativity of Chukovsky there was a “social“ subject when strong and wild animals do not allow Aybolit to treat weak and small therefore real war in which “humiliated and offended“ fight back “oppressors“ begins.

Then Chukovsky had enough taste and a measure to clean these fragments.

Soon “Limpopo“ replaced the name on “Aybolit“, and the doctor becomes one of the most popular characters of the Soviet culture. Aybolit is even represented on illustrations of the fairy tale “Phone“ though initially her hero was meant as the author. Chukovsky even displayed in it all life tormenting him sleeplessness:

“I did not sleep three nights,
Ya was tired.
to me to fall asleep,
to Have a rest …
But only I laid down -
Is ringing!“

In 1938. on the basis of 2 - y and 3 - y parts of prosaic “Doctor Aybolit“ the movie under the scenario E was made. Schwartz with the well-known song:

“Board Rita, Tit Drit! Shivandaz`s
, shivand! We native Aybolit
will never leave

In 1967 the cheerful musical movie “Aybolit - 66“ where the song about “normal heroes“ will especially be remembered and Barmalya performed by Rolan Bykov will appear (“Now we will kill you with , to plunder, offend and humiliate!“ ).
A in 1985 on screens will appear the ironic cartoon serial “Doctor Aybolit“ which included almost all fantastic epos of Chukovsky at all.

Only one fairy tale about Aybolit in which Chukovsky will for the first time break several principles will be left in the basket. But about this fairy tale and relationship of the writer with the Soviet censorship the speech still ahead...