Whether K. Chukovsky`s “Aybolit“ is plagiarism of “Doctor Dulittl“?
of One of features of a creative manner of Chukovsky are presence of so-called “through“ characters who pass from the fairy tale into the fairy tale. At the same time they do not unite work in certain consecutive “series“, and as if in parallel exist in several worlds in different variations.
For example, Moydodyr can be met in “Phone“ and “Bibigon“, and Krokodilovich`s Crocodile - in “Phone“, “Moydodyr“ and “Barmaley“.
Not without reason Chukovsky ironically called the fairy tales “krokodiliada“. One more favourite character - the Hippopotamus - exists in Chukovsky`s “mythology“ even in two appearances - actually the Hippopotamus and the Hippopotamus which the author asks not to confuse (“A hippopotamus - the druggist, and the Hippopotamus - the tsar“).
But probably kind doctor Aybolit and the angry pirate - the cannibal Barmalya became the most multivariable characters of the writer. So in prosaic “Doctor Aybolit“ (“retelling according to Gyyu Loftingu“) the doctor is from the foreign city of Pindemonte, in “Barmaley“ - from the Soviet Leningrad, and in the poem “Let`s Overcome Barmaley“ - from the fantastic country of Aybolitiya. The same and with Barmaley. If in the fairy tale of the same name it improves and goes to Leningrad, then in prosaic option it is devoured by sharks, and in “Will overcome Barmaley“ at all shoot down with the submachine gun.
Tales of Aybolit - a constant source of disputes on plagiarism. One consider that Korney Ivanovich unscrupulously stole a plot from Hugh Loftinga and his tales of doctor Dulittle, others - consider that Aybolit arose at Chukovsky earlier and only then was used in Loftinga`s retelling. And before we will begin to restore the “dark“ past of Aybolit, it is necessary to tell several words and about the author of “Doctor Dulittl“.
So, Hugh Lofting was born in England in 1886 and though he since the childhood adored animals (he liked to potter with them on a mother`s farm and even organized a house zoo), he was learned not on the zoologist or the veterinarian at all, and on the railway engineer. However the profession allowed it to visit the exotic countries of Africa and South America. In 1912 Lofting moved to live in New - York, got a family and even began to scribble different profile articles in magazines. But as he still remained the British citizen, from the beginning 1 - y World war it was called on the front the lieutenant of the Irish guard. His children very much missed the father, and he promised to write them letters constantly. But unless you will write to kids about surrounding massacre? And here under impression of a picture of Lofting`s horses perishing in the war began to compose the tale of the kind doctor who learned animal language and in every possible way helped different animals. The doctor received very speaking name “Do-Little“ (“To do small“) forcing to remember Chekhov and its principle of “small affairs“.
“My children waited for the house of letters from me - better with pictures, than without. It was it is unlikely interesting to write younger generation of the report from the front: news were either too awful, or too boring. Besides all of them were censored. One thing, however, drew my attention more and more - it is a significant role which was played in World war by animals, and eventually they, seemingly, became not smaller fatalists, than people. They risked as well as all of us. But their destiny strongly differed from human. As if seriously the soldier was wounded, fought for his life, all means of the surgery which perfectly developed during war were sent him to the aid. Seriously wounded horse was adjusted the started-up bullet in time. It is not really fair, in my opinion. If we subjected animals of the same danger which faced, then why did not surround them with the same attention when they got wound? But, it is obvious to operate horses on our evacuation points, the knowledge of horse language would be required. So I engendered this idea...“.
When Loftinga from - for wounds was demobilized, he decided to process the fairy tale. By the ship floating in New - York, the manuscript were seen by the British poet Cecil Roberts and recommended to address the publisher. And here in 1920 in the USA there was “A history of doctor Dulittl“ illustrated with the author. The edition made stable success, and for all the life of Lofting wrote 14 books about Dulittl.
In 1924 “Dulittl“ noticed also in the Soviet Russia. The publishing house ordered even two translations of the fairy tale. The first was designed for children of middle age, and it was executed by E. Havkina. Subsequently it was forgotten and more in the USSR was not republished. But the second option carrying heading “Guy Lofting. Doctor Aybolit. For small children K. Chukovsky retold“, had long and rich history. Target audience became the reason that language of the fairy tale is very simplified. Besides, Chukovsky wrote that he “brought in the processing tens of realities which are not in the original“.
And it is valid, in the new retelling editions it was constantly processed. So Dulittl turned into Aybolit, a dog the Jeep - into Avva, a pig Dzhab - Dzhab - into Hryu - hryu, the boring hypocrite - the puritan and doctor Sar`s sister - in absolutely spiteful Varvara, and the native king Dzholinginki and the pirate Ben - Ali will merge in a uniform image of the pirate at all - the cannibal Barmaley.
And though retelling “Doctor Aybolit“ constantly accompanied a subtitle “according to Gyyu Loftingu“, in the edition of 1936 the mysterious editorial epilog appeared:
“A few years ago occurred very strange thing: two writers on two doomsday composed the same tale of the same person. One writer lived over the ocean, in America, and another - at us in the USSR, in Leningrad. One called Gyyu Lofting, and another - Korney Chukovsky. They never saw each other and did not even hear about each other. One wrote in Russian, and another in English, with one verses, and another - prose. But fairy tales turned out at them very similar because in both fairy tales the same hero: the kind doctor who treats animals...“.
So all-: who thought up Aybolit? If not to know that the first retelling of Loftinga came out in 1924, then it seems that Chukovsky just took Aybolit from the poetic fairy tales and just placed in retelling. But taking into account this fact everything looks not so unambiguously, was written by “Barmalya“ the same year, as retelling, and the first version of poetic “Aybolit“ 4 years at all later.
Chukovsky claimed that the doctor appeared in the first improvisational version of “Crocodile“ which he composed for the sick son.
K. Chukovsky, from the diary, 20. 10. 1955.: “Doctor Aybolit“ as one of characters was b>
“… and there; only it was called then: “Oybolit“. I entered this doctor there to play down the painful impression which remained with Kolya from the Finnish surgeon“.
Chukovsky also wrote that the Jewish doctor from Vilno - Timofey Osipovich Shabad with whom he got acquainted in 1912 became a prototype of the kind doctor for it. He was so kind that agreed to treat free of charge poor people, and sometimes and animals.
“Doctor Shabad was the kindest person whom I knew in life. Will come, happened, to it the thin girl, he speaks to her: “You want that I wrote out to you the recipe? No, you will be helped by milk. Come to me every morning and you will receive two glasses of milk“. whether in Chukovsky`s head the idea to write the tale of the animal doctor Really crowded with
, or not, one is clear: as incentive for its emergence acquaintance to Lofting obviously served. And further almost original creativity already began. And about it another time.