What precepts were left by Korney Chukovsky to children`s poets?
Those who represent the author of “Crocodile“ and “Moydodyr“ such dear and complacent “grandfather Korney“ are mistaken a little. Chukovsky had a character not sugar.
It is enough to read his letters and diaries, or quite rigid memoirs (under the name “White Wolf“) other “storyteller“ - Evgeny Schwartz who some time worked for Korney Ivanovich as the secretary. Constant suspiciousness, a causticity, the suspiciousness which is quite often passing into a misanthropy (up to own self-abasement) fairly put out to people around (and to the writer).
But we will leave analysis of negative qualities to “yellow press“ and we will address the “light“ party of the identity of Chukovsky without which emergence of so remarkable fairy tales would be impossible. Many remember how easily the writer felt with children as he changed with them in the cheerful partner in games and the entertaining story-teller. Not without reason the moments of “return to the childhood“, these inflow of happiness were for it the main sources of inspiration.
The writer experienced the most powerful inflow of happiness in Petrograd on August 29, 1923 when almost entirely to it Mucha of Tsokotukh“ was well-known “. Chukovsky`s story is, probably, one of the best descriptions of so irrational state as inspiration:
“... feeling like the person who can work wonders, I did not vzbezhat, and flew up as on wings, to our empty apartment on Kirochna (my family did not move from giving yet) and, having grabbed some dusty paper scrap and having hardly found a pencil, began to throw a line after line (unexpectedly for myself) the cheerful poem about a mukhiny wedding, and felt like at this wedding the groom.
… Very much the one who, having entered my apartment, would see me would be surprised, the father of family, 42 - summer, greyish, burdened with long-term day work as I rush on the apartment in wild shaman dancing and I cry out ringing words and I write down them on a clumsy and dusty strip of wall-paper which is torn off from a wall.
In this fairy tale two holidays: name-day and wedding. I celebrated with all soul both. But as soon as used up all paper and composed the last words of the fairy tale, unconsciousness of happiness instantly left me, and I turned into immensely tired and very hungry country husband who arrived to the city for small and burdensome affairs“.
Each such inflow of happiness gave us one of fairy tales. The reasons could be different - bathing in the sea (“Aybolit“), suddenly arisen picture “the rebelled, crazy things which crashed out from long captivity... in panic running the friend behind a druzhka“ (“Fedorino a grief“), attempt to convince the daughter to wash (“Moydodyr“), experiments in a litstudiya (“Tarakanishche“), a consolation of the sick son (“Crocodile“), or even a problem of purchase of boots for children (“A miracle - a tree“).
But, unlike “the Fly of Tsokotukhi“, inspired only separate lines were born. Chukovsky worked on the others painfully and laboriously. Its draft copies are used up up and down with a set of deletions and changes. For example, options of “Bibigon“ was more than dozen! How Chukovsky fought with himself for qualitative lines, you can read in detail in his articles “History of my “Aybolit“, “As the Fly - Tsokotukh“ and “Recognitions of the old storyteller“ was written “. At the same time the writer deleted not only unsuccessful pieces, but also excessive. From - for it Mucha of Tsokotukh“ lost two “comely“ stanzas even inspired “.
The harmonious combination in one face of the inspired creator and the critic - the scrupulous analyst not only the stranger, but also the creativity was the special line of Chukovsky which defined his success also. Not each poet is able to explain secrets of the skill. However Chukovsky not only wrote brilliant fairy tales, but also recorded the principles of the approach to creativity - the so-called precepts for children`s poets stated in the book “From 2 to 5“.
It considered as one of the main qualities of children`s verses dynamism. The richness of images in itself will not attract the child if these images are not in the continuous movement, will not be involved in a continuous chain of events. In each stanza of fairy tales of Chukovsky something occurs, each stanza can be illustrated easily. Not without reason the “vortex“ banding drawings for the first time are published in its books, and in the first Moydodyra edition the eloquent subtitle “cinema for children“ appears. The indignant crowd pursues the Crocodile, is opened by a train of the going and flying animals to “Tarakanishche“, things from the woman Fedora run, things from the dirty creature from “Moydodyr“ run.
A here to encumber children`s verses with epithets Chukovsky does not advise - long descriptions of target audience are not interesting yet.
at the same time different images and events have to have the special rhythm. Reading aloud “The stolen sun“, we each line like the Bear strike crushing blow on the Crocodile:
“The Bear did not endure
Began to roar
I on the angry enemy
the Bear Flew
A then seems to us that it from our mouth
“... The sun you - fell,
In the sky you - slid!“
In “Phone“ we also perfectly feel slowness and laconicism of the speech of an elephant as opposed to an impatient monorifmichesky taratorenye of gazelles:
All burned down
of the Roundabout?“
Chukovsky could not suffer at all monotony therefore all life the monologue from 2 - y considered parts of “Crocodile“ as a mistake. Not to detain the course of events, the writer throws out from “Aybolit“ excellent lines about the burned moth.
Sounding of verses also has to be comfortable for children`s perception. From the sizes the trochee where an accent already on the first syllable is desirable. It is impossible to allow any disharmony - for example, congestions of concordants on a joint of words.
Of course, the happy end and lack of cruelty has to be a necessary element of children`s fairy tales. The people and animals swallowed by the Crocodile jump out back whole and safe, and Barmalya improves. Proceeding from this principle, Chukovsky cleaned from “Crocodile“ and “Phone“ such lines:
“... From a pistoletik mutual fund - paf -
I the dead falls a giraffe.
Mutual fund - paf! - also the deer falls!
Mutual fund - paf - also falls a seal!
Mutual fund - paf and brainless lions
Lie on coast of Neva“.
“And then the crocodile Called by
- I to a raven and, to a raven,
Ya to a raven swallowed!
- could not be Done, the friend, You take
iron Yes heat
Yes rather on a stomach
Let to a raven propecht
Let to a raven properly of Pripechet`s
then it minutes
will not remain in a stomach:
And will jump out,
And will take off!
But the poor creature a crocodile
More raised a howl... “
However, this principle the writer observed not always, and we will talk about it another time.
For the rest the children`s poetry on quality has to not concede in anything adult. Speaking to other language, it has to be pleasant not only to the children`s, but also adult reader. And it is impossible to rely here on one inspiration. Chukovsky wrote: “It is not worth a pin for its “returns to the childhood“ if it did not stock up with in advance thorough knowledge of native and foreign literature and did not like its mighty esthetics“. Not without reason the writer considered that the children`s poetry has to be based on all achievements of world poetry - as author`s and folklore. From here and the “Confusion“ sending us to the English nonsense and tales, and “Tarakanishche“ - peculiar children`s “Auditor“ of Gogol, and “Crocodile“ - “novel“ about war and peace, and “Barmalya“ - the adventurous story and “operetta“, and the “Stolen Sun“ which is originally reviving mythological plots about the monsters devouring heavenly bodies.
And, at last, main thing.
“... to all these precepts it is necessary to add one more, can be most important: the writer for small children has to be by all means happy. It is happy, as well as those for whom he creates.
Of course, I cannot boast that happiness - a dominant of my life.... But at me since youth was - and now remains - one precious property: to spite of all scrapes and squabbles suddenly unexpectedly, without any visible reason, you will feel the strongest inflow of some mad happiness. Especially during such periods when it ought to complain and complain, suddenly you jump from a bed with such mad feeling of pleasure as if you are a five-year-old boy to whom presented a whistle“.
P. S.: Not to overload article, I took out some quotes in the comment.