Rus Articles Journal

What limits of knowledge were reached by mankind?

we Will consider limits of knowledge of natural sciences at a boundary of XX and the XXI centuries (in the main units of the SI system).

Meter

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Nizhny Novgorod a limit is equal to 10 -15 meters - the characteristic size of an atomic nucleus. Heavy atoms are visible in the scanning tunnel microscope.

The top limit is equal to 5·10 12 parsecs - distance to quasars - the most remote visible objects in the Universe (1 parsec is equal to about 2·10 5 astronomical units or 3·10 13 meters) - i.e. distance to quasars of 15·10 25 meters. Are visible in radio telescopes. Scope in the order of sizes - 41.

Secunda

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Nizhny Novgorod a limit is equal to 3·10 -13 seconds - the accuracy of an atomic clock on “caesium - 133“ isotope. In 1967 definition of nuclear second was given. It sounds so: “Duration of 9 192 631 770 fluctuations of the radiation corresponding to the resonant frequency of transition between two levels of superthin structure of the main condition of atom “caesium - 133“, in the absence of indignations from external fields“.

The top limit is equal to about 15 billion years - it is age of the Universe from the Big Bang (in a year of 3,1536·10 7 seconds - that is age of the Universe of 5·10 17 seconds. Scope in the order of sizes - 30.

of Kilograms

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Nizhny Novgorod a limit is equal to 10 -30 kilograms (mass of an electron).
the Top limit is equal to 2·10 30 kilograms. It is the mass of the Sun, but there are Sun stars weighing up to 100 masses. Scope in the order of sizes - 60.

Degree Kelvin

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Nizhny Novgorod a limit is equal to 10 -6 degrees Kelvin (it is received by method of magnetic cooling).
the Top limit is equal to 10 8 degrees Kelvin - in 1994 at Princeton university, in vitro reached the highest in the history of temperature - 527777760 degrees Kelvin that is 30 times hotter, than in the center of the Sun (high-temperature plasma). Scope in the order of sizes - 14.

of Amperes

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Nizhny Novgorod a limit is equal to 10 -15 ampere - current in gases under the influence of space radiation.
the Top limit is equal to 5·10 5 ampere - the maximum currents of land lightnings. Scope in the order of sizes - 20.

On availability

the Brain of the person and of depth of Earth are inaccessible

and are practically not investigated. A brain it is difficult to investigate from - for restrictions of experiments on a live organism, and a dead brain - already not fully a brain. Depths of sushi are available to 12 kilometers in one point. It is the Kola superdeep well (design depth of 15 kilometers is preserved from - for a lack of financing). Very many wells up to several kilometers in depth are drilled. And generally - holes - ditches at geological shooting and investigation of minerals. The main methods of research of depths of Earth - indirect geophysical. The conclusions about elementno - phase structure are in many respects speculative.

The World Ocean is rather available. The shelf is investigated by divers and submersibles and is already widely used for oil production. But at the bottom of the Mariana hollow (depth about 11 kilometers) there were only 3 aquanauts. Space is also available and is intensively investigated (spacecrafts and several hundreds of astronauts) and is used (communication and monitoring of Earth).

So to the young man is what to be engaged, besides marketing and management.