Science: it is immoral?
of “Knowledge itself is power“ (F. Bekon). “The knowledge is the power (power)“. Ancient it was well understood. The limited caste devoted (shamans, priests) was keepers of knowledge.
I will risk to claim that science in itself is immoral . Why? The natural sciences are based on measurement, comparison, on rational (based on reason) behavior. Try to measure such morally - ethical concepts as love, conscience, patriotism, honor, appeal, hypocrisy, existence of soul or its absence, etc. The irrational component in the person is based on feelings. On the living person it is impossible to experiment (politicians and economists, however, do it). Some biologists and physicians made experiments, but on themselves. Perhaps, pensioners to deputies of the State Duma should have checked a monetization of social benefits on themselves too?
Moral criteria and in science are changeable. Ancient Greeks considered that the slave - the speaking tool, and idea of human dignity to it is inapplicable. Modern biologists do not apply to experimental animals of concept about justice and a debt. Perhaps, our descendants with disgust will read about Pavlov`s experiences on live doggies. But ethical problems nevertheless rise before scientists in connection with possible applications of results of their work. Here everyone solves. There is a lot of examples.
F. Haber who rescued mankind from nitric hunger (receiving ammonia), at the same time - the initiator of military use of toxic agents. During World War I was one of organizers voyenno - chemical industry of Germany, in particular production of toxic agents. After war the scientist actively promoted revival of the German war industry. Apparently, from quite moral patriotic motives.
I already wrote about N. I. Vavilov earlier. Its antipode of T. D. Lysenko - the organizer of defeat of biology in the USSR. Denying classical genetics (a mendelizm - a morganizm) as “bourgeois“, approved a possibility of inheritance of the acquired signs, “regenerations“ of one look in another. Practical recommendations of Lysenko for agriculture (superfast removal of new grades and so forth) were insolvent. Since 1930 - x for 1964 (especially after session of VASHNIL of 1948) Lysenko`s activity was supported by I. V. Stalin and then N. S. Khrushchev, and its the “Marxist biology“ directed to revolutionary alteration of the nature and promising the fast solution of a food problem took root administratively. As a result of monopolism of Lysenko and his supporters schools of sciences in genetics, oshelmovana honest scientists were crushed, the damage is caused to agriculture of the country.
R. Oppengeymer in the years of World War II headed works on creation of an atomic bomb; in 1947 - 53 was the chairman of general advisory committee of the Commission on atomic energy of the USA. In 1954 it was removed from all posts connected with carrying out confidential works and it is accused of “disloyalty“; the opposition of the scientist to creation of a hydrogen bomb, and also performance for use of atomic energy only in the peace purposes was the main cause of it.
The academician Pktr Kapitsa refused to participate in creation of the Soviet atomic bomb for what in 1945 he is dismissed from a post of the director of the Institute of physical problems of Academy of Sciences of the USSR created by it and within eight years was under house arrest. Went in for physics at the dacha with the son Sergey Kapitsey.
The academician A. D. Sakharov - one of creators of a hydrogen bomb (1953) in the USSR. Since the end of 1950 - x actively supported the termination of tests of the nuclear weapon. Since the end of 1960 - x - one of leaders of a human rights movement. In work of “Reflection about progress, peaceful co-existence and intellectual freedom“ (1968) Sakharov considered the threats to mankind connected with its dissociation, opposition of socialist and capitalist systems: nuclear war, hunger, environmental and demographic disasters, dehumanization of society, racism, nationalism, dictatorial terrorist modes.
The publication of this work in the West was the cause for Sakharov`s discharge from confidential works. After a protest against input of the Soviet troops to Afghanistan Sakharov in January, 1980 was deprived of all state awards (the Hero of Socialist Work (1954, 1956, 1962), the State award (1953), the Lenin award (1956) ) also Gorky where continued human rights activity is banished to the city. It is returned from the reference in 1986 at M. S. Gorbachev. The Academician V. A. Legasov received Nobel Peace Prize in 1975
committed suicide, including himself responsible for the Chernobyl accident. Though he was a radio chemist in the specialty, had no relation to a design of the reactor and spent in an emergency zone more time, than all members of the government commission combined.
Whether the science is immoral in essence, everyone solves.