How many crimes will not be solved without judicial chemistry? Sherlock Holmes did not know
that Earth rotates around the Sun, but in chemistry had knowledge - on Watson`s classification - “deep“.
So, judicial chemistry - part applied, mainly to analytical , chemistry. Includes research of air, water, the soil, food and flavoring supplies, consumer goods, human secrets and ekskret, suspicious blood and seed spots, various technical preparations, the written and printed documents, the crude and processed medicinal substances etc. - all this can be judicial a subject - chemical research.
As year of birth of judicial chemistry consider 1840 . Case of Maria Lafarg who poisoned the husband with arsenic was heard. From Paris as the expert Orfila who “showed“ to structure of court the metal arsenic emitted from an organism of the victim was invited.
The bureau is judicial - medical examination (SME) are created practically in all federal centers of Russia. In structure of SME bureau there is a number of offices for carrying out laboratory researches which are a part of department of material evidences. It is judicial - the chemical office carries out is judicial - chemical examinations for the purpose of allocation, identification and quantitative definition (or exceptions) toxic, narcotic and strong agents, products of their transformation in bodies and tissues of the person, and also in pharmaceutical preparations, foodstuff, drinks, tobacco products, the Wednesday surrounding the person and on objects.
The whole group of criminalistic examinations was formed: researches of paint and varnish coverings and paints and varnishes, it is combustible - lubricants and oil products, fibrous materials and products from them, narcotic, explosives and pharmaceuticals, metal particles, products from porcelain and glass and their traces, tobacco products, traces and parts of polymeric materials and, at last, particles it is soil - a phytogenesis.
Preliminary methods - color reactions, a thin layer chromatography, the immunofermental analysis, and also the confirming methods - a spektrofotometriya in visible, ultra-violet and infrared areas, atomno - an absorbing spektrofotometriya, a gas-liquid chromatography, hromatomass - spectrometry, the radiographic analysis, electronic microscopy, an electronic paramagnetic resonance, etc. of
Even of a search doggie - the spontaneous chemist are applied to detection and identification as the smell consists of the chemicals influencing a doggie organism. Unfortunately, dogs work, for example, by search of drugs, is short - perish. “the electronic nose“ is now developed for automation of control of transportation of drugs and explosives.
There is a number of textbooks in judicial chemistry and toxicology. But I do not think that all are reflected in them modern the chemist - biological ways of disclosure of crimes. It is rather a property of instructions and techniques for office use because if the criminal forewarned is forearmed against society.
I will risk to assume that without judicial chemistry 50% of crimes will not be solved. I invite criminalists to specify this assessment.