Where we will come without agrochemistry?
of K to podsechny agriculture . Often you hear in the markets, in advertizing: “It is grown up without chemistry“. Not only that this dense ignorance, but also lack of culture. As Latin cultura originally meant processing of the earth, and the plants removed by the person are called crops, unlike their wild relatives.
Manure of the granny on the sites is brought? And ashes? And an egg shell for a raskisleniye? It that? Not chemistry? Owners, what, is changed by the seasonal dachas for virgin each 3 - 5 years? It is unlikely. We have no so many virgin lands - plowed up in 1950 - x.
Agrochemistry - science about chemical processes in the soil and plants, mineral food of plants, use of fertilizers and means of chemical melioration of soils; scientific basis of chemicalixation of agriculture. Here the soil chemistry enters and actually .
Includes: determination of content in soils and plants of chemical elements, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, fats, carbohydrates; establishment of mechanical and mineralogical structure of soils, contents in them organic part (humus), salts, seaweed, microorganisms, etc. Studies influence of fertilizers on plants and the soil. Usually at first researches conduct in laboratory by the methods similar to that which apply in chemistry and biology. Then, as a rule, make vegetative experiments in the greenhouse with participation of live plants. Recommendations for practical application of agrochemical means and methods give out on the basis of field experiments, and also the production tests which are carried out on big squares for a number of years.
Many methods of agrochemistry (for example, application of a number of organic fertilizers) were included into practice of agriculture in an extreme antiquity.
Thanks to creation of new branch of agrochemistry - of chemistry of pesticides - there was opportunity not only to improve food of plants, but also to influence (by means of growth regulators) their development, and also to protect them from diseases, insects, pincers, nematodes and other wreckers. Huge impact on agrochemistry was exerted by discovery of selective herbicides (1942 - 44) . Destruction of weeds with their help allowed to improve conditions of growth of plants and to effectively use fertilizers as they are not spent for top dressing of weeds.
It is important not to overdose and not to dump heaps of chemicals on roadsides of fields as happened. Took out - means, it seems, brought!
It is representable that we forgot all agrochemistry. Industrial processing of the earth will stop. Most of the population will simply die out for hunger. The remained one hundred millions men with stone axes (metal could not be received) will run in the woods to cut and burn trees, i.e. will return to podsechny agriculture. And ladies will begin to plow the earth a primitive plow from a rhizome. The remained woods of years for 20 - 30 will destroy. The survived run wild homo will be engaged in hunting for steppe animals...
There is such prospect!
Fortunately, for the present in Novosibirsk the Institute of soil science and agrochemistry of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, and in Pushchino - Institute of the physicist - chemical and biological problems of soil science of the Russian Academy of Sciences works. Magazines for cultural owners - “Agrochemistry“ and “the Agrochemical messenger“ are issued. There is a modern textbook - Muravin E. A. Agrokhimiya. - M.: 2003.