Whether it is possible to make a fur coat of a stone?
Are possible - for the house. In what we put on? Fabric, fur, wool, generally, fibers. In them it is warm and easy for us. In what we dress houses? In a brick, concrete, metal and glass!? Cold and heavy. Nerves and muscles consist of fibers too. And we have enough them for a century. And the rod breaks every season. What unique material - of fiber is?
It is materials which length of a particle is many times more than diameter . Advantage consists in a combination of properties of a solid body and Wednesday to the developed surface. They can be both an organic, and inorganic origin. Materials from cotton, flax, hemp, jute are known to all.
A unique example of use of properties of fiber the nature is the fur coat of a polar bear . Under laws of hunting the fur coat of a bear has to be white for masking. Under laws of physics - black, for the maximum heating of the body. How to combine incompatible? The secret of a fur coat of a polar bear is that it consists of hollow fibers. Their internal surface rough. Visible light is well scattered by roughnesses in hairs. For this reason the fur coat of a bear seems to an eye of the observer white. Under white fur skin has black color and perceives energy of the sunshine brought to it by hollow hairs.
Fibers of an inorganic origin receive from asbestos and of basalt . In this sphere there is a competition between artificial fibers, mainly substances of organic chemistry, and fibers mineral, i.e. a natural origin. On the party of chemical materials - the wide product range and large-capacity nature of production. Their enemies - chemical dangers and risks on all production chain both for Wednesday, and for the person. Besides, at the fires part of the victims are traumatized not so much burn character how many from poisoning with products of decomposition of polymeric finishing materials. Advantages of stone (basalt) cotton wool are that it maintains temperatures of heating to 700 degrees, at the same time without distinguishing decomposition products, dangerous to the person.
Use of asbestos in the industry and in life, as insulating heat-resistant material is various and broad. But recently it was established that asbesotsoderzhashchy materials belong to carcinogens of fibrogenny action which start the mechanism of formation of cancer tumors. Therefore there was a question of replacement of fragile asbestos materials by elastic and safe materials on the basis of basalt fiber .
Basalts - a kind of volcanic breeds. In spite of the fact that the most part of mass of substance of crust is in a crystalline state, in a subsoil of the planet and on the Earth`s surface during volcanic eruptions high-temperature processes with participation of amorphous smelting of natural aluminosilicates are realized. When cooling the massive part of a lava stream rather quickly crystallizes, and small particles harden in a vitreous state. In the course of volcanic eruptions are formed, including, and amorphous fibers.
So-called “Pele`s hair“ which find on coast of lava lakes on the Hawaiian Islands are known. Pele - a name of the Hawaiian goddess of fire. “Pele`s hair“ are glass threads, up to two meters long. They are formed when passing volcanic gases through lava fusion. This process is similar to technological schemes of receiving stone (basalt) cotton wool. It is considered that finds of basalt cotton wool in Hawaii suggested an idea of industrial receiving fibers from rocks. Stocks of basalt raw materials are almost unlimited and make about 30% of the area occupied with magmatic breeds on Earth.
What place is taken by stone (basalt) fiber among materials? On density of materials can be judged their weight and expenses which arise at construction of buildings. Density of stone cotton wool density, by 60 times - reinforced concrete, and by 45 times - a brick became 200 times less. Thus, the bazaltovolokonny house can be built manually, without use of lifting mechanisms. From the car of basalt breed receive 20 cars of fiber. the Coefficient of heat conductivity of cotton wool from it is two orders less than
, than at reinforced concrete, and much, than at a brick. Application of 1 m 3 basalt cotton wool gives economy of 1 t of conditional fuel in a year. Development of bazaltovolokonny technologies is actual for Russia with its in unexpectedly coming winters .
Basalt fibers have the highest rate of durability on stretching (2000 - 3000 MPas) and the elasticity limit exceeding values of limits of elasticity of steel and titanic alloys that gives the chance to use it instead of special staly in hostile and abrasive environment. In contact with hostile environment bazaltovolokonny materials are used without repair within 50 years. And the rod from continuous basalt fiber will serve eternally. Thermal insulation of space shuttles is made of material on the basis of silicate fiber too. Bazaltovolokonny shtapel can be used for production of fireproof clothes and as a basis of composites for cases of cars and low-tonnage vessels.
Acquaintance to materials on bazaltovolokonny subject led me to thought that in the ancient time production of materials oxygen to the atmosphere went to terrestrial on wrong - metal ways. In crust metals are in the basic in an oxidic form. By restoration, spending the sea of energy, the person makes pure metals and from them consumer goods. Though at the beginning of the history the person used stone (oxidic) materials. A scraper and the axe from flint, having lain in the earth thousands of years, it is suitable for use. Metal objects on a third are destroyed by corrosion in use.
Isn`t it time to return to the Stone Age? to Dress houses in stone wool and to catch a small fish stone rods.