What role of religion in formation of natural sciences?
We are brought up on opposition of science and religion. The “dark“ Middle Ages, inquisition, persecutions on Galileo Galilei and Giordano Bruno`s burning. Horror! Meanwhile the role of religious institutes in development of natural sciences is big. Let`s address the facts.
of School . Let`s begin with scholasticism (its system of cross references any scientist uses). The word school, school (English), of Schule (German) comes from Schola (Latin) . Derivative “Scholasticus“ - school, educational. This name designates the philosophy taught in the Middle Ages.
The word “Scholasticus“ used as a noun was attached at first to teachers of several sciences taught at the monastic schools founded by Charles the Great and also to teachers of divinity; subsequently it was postponed for all who went in for sciences. This beginning of regular organized training . In Russia it is connected with schools at church parishes. By 1861 it was based from above of 18 thousand initial schools , so-called “tserkovno - parish schools“.
Universities . The first universities were created, first of all, for needs of religious education.
In the X-o ²² centuries there are schools, excellent from old, connected with interests of local arrival. Professors and their pupils form corporations with special jurisdiction, self-government institutions and privileges. The association, merchant guild or torgovo - industrial shop in the Middle Ages were called universitas therefore members of free school as representatives of pedagogical and scientific craft began to be called universitas studentium (the term studentes designated both teachers, and pupils). At the first universities teaching was conducted in Latin, general for all people. Examples: University of Bologna (year of foundation - 1088); Paduansky (1222); Sorbonne - university in Paris, in the beginning the theological school, is founded in 1258 by the theologian R. de Sorbon; Heidelberg (1386); Oxford (1117).
Slavyano - Greco - Latin academy - the Russia`s first higher educational institution. It is founded in 1687 under the name “Ellino - the Greek Skhola“ on the basis of Typographical school in Zaikonospassky Monastery as vsesoslovny educational institution. In it M. V. Lomonosov was trained. Preservation and distribution of information
On reading and writing off of books monks watched
as at charitable business. At monasteries libraries early began to be got.
In 1445 the press was invented. The book became available to a wide range of inquisitive. One of the first printing books - the Bible.
Monasteries served also as book-depositories. For example, the library of abbey of Sankt - Galen in Switzerland, founded in 612, during so-called “dark“ centuries grew in large library on a mediyevistika. Monasteries were one of the first forms of support of fundamental science as exempted the monks from cares of daily bread, a shelter, clothes and … to defense . And what else is necessary to the true scientist? Receiving directly scientific knowledge we Will begin
with the fact that scientists - atheists up to the 19th century could not be. Their outlook was religious on education.
We will give names of some scientists, former professional priests or studying at monastic schools.
Sv. St Isidore of Seville (560-636). The author 20 - the languid work “Etymology“. He is considered the patron of pupils and students, and in 1999 the father John Paul II officially called St. Isidor the patron of users of computers and the Internet , that the Worldwide network is a huge treasury of human knowledge.
Albert Veliky (1193-1280) - skholastik, the Dominican. For the first time emitted in pure form arsenic.
Bacon R. (1214 after 1294) - the Franciscan, the scientist. He considered that only the mathematics as science, is most reliable. With its help it is possible to check data of all other sciences.
Copernicus N. (1473-1543) - the Catholic priest, the astronomer and the economist. The author of the heliocentric system of the world which laid the foundation of the first scientific revolution.
Galilei G. (1564-1642). Got primary education in the monastery. Founder of experimental physics.
Kepler I. (1571-1630) - the mathematician, the astronomer and the optician. Opened laws of the movement of planets. Graduated from school at the monastery and theological faculty of university.
Descartes R. (1596-1650) - the creator of analytical geometry and modern algebraic symbolics. Got primary education in a Jesuit college. He formulated the method of knowledge: deductive (mathematical) reasonings over results of the reproduced experiences.
Grimaldi F. M. (1618-1663) - the priest. Opened diffraction of light. Made the card of the Moon and entered the name of lunar educations, used to this day.
Derkham U. (1657-1735) - the priest. The first measured sound speed.
Boshkovich R. I. (1711-1787) - the priest - the Jesuit. Creator of geodesy. Offered the term “geoid2.
Priestley J. (1733-1804) - the priest, the chemist. Opened oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Malthus T. R. (1766-1834) - the priest, the demographer and the economist, the author of the theory according to which the uncontrollable growth of the population has to lead to hunger on Earth.
Mendel G. I. (1822-1884) - the monk, the biologist and the botanist who played a huge role in development of idea of heredity. Mendel`s laws lie in the basis of modern genetics.
Tellar de Chardin P. (1881-1955) - the theologian and the philosopher, the priest - the Jesuit, one of creators of the theory of a noosphere.
Florensky P. A. (1882-1937) - the orthodox priest, the physicist, the chemist, the art critic. In 1921 worked in the Glavenergo system, taking part in GOELRO, and in 1924 publishes the monograph about dielectrics.
Heller M. (sort. 1936) - priest, physicist and cosmologist. Author of works on the theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, cosmology. One of issues with which Heller dealt sounds so: Whether “The reason is necessary to the Universe?“.
The inquisitive reader will add this list with tens of names...