How to learn English independently of
Ability to speak English and to understand the English speech, also as ability to float, drive the car, etc. - all this is skills and abilities, and it is possible to get them in the different ways. And any skill is a combination of knowledge and abilities, theories and practicians. Ability to communicate in a foreign language is an alloy of grammatical knowledge, a lexical arsenal and ability this knowledge to use in practice.
If the person seriously asks a question how to learn English independently, then he chooses both a method and a way of studying: whether “to gnaw“ the self-instruction manual the page by the page, whether to listen to songs and to sort words of favourite foreign performers, whether to plunge into “the language environment“, communicating directly with carriers of this language. But studying of English at us is more often and in other countries takes place collectively: at school, at institute, on courses, etc. And in this case you learn language by that technique which is taken at present “advantage“ by the country, the Ministry of Education, educational institution, the specific teacher, eventually.
In this article I will not carry out the analysis of various scientific approaches and techniques of teaching foreign languages with all the merits and demerits, and I will try to make short and simple recommendations how to learn English independently.
So, for a start acquaint yourself with search of rather thick dictionary. Do not buy thin dictionaries: experience shows that they become not enough soon and all the same it is necessary to look for the big dictionary. At the initial stage use the dictionary as the textbook. A task of each dictionary respecting itself is rather detailed description of a current state of dictionary structure of language. It is some kind of reference book on many questions of a lexicology, grammar, stylistics, phonetics.
In each language (and, therefore, and in each dictionary) exists a large number of the international words. Proper names, place names (the nations, the countries, the cities), and also scientific terminology open before you all interrelations between a sound and a letter in the learned language. Try as it is possible to get acquainted closer with rules of a pronunciation of sounds, word formations. Sorting rules of reading, you will be able to open for yourself and other secrets of language: as various parts of speech as a noun are formed from one root becomes a verb, and the word - action turns into definition, etc.
Together with the dictionary, or right after it, it is desirable to acquire the textbook and fiction in English. The best version of textbooks with “key“ which contain the correct solutions of tasks. Having attentively read lessons, do all exercises, having left the place for corrections. Having checked the exercises “on a key“ and having corrected incorrect options, you receive some kind of evident history of the mistakes. For fixing of material and eradication make 8 - 10 correct options near the wrong, distorted words and phrases of memory of the made mistakes.
Generally study of the textbook - occupation quite boring and tiresome so not bad to be accepted to reading stories and plays in the original. At the beginning, it is possible to be limited to the adapted texts. At the first reading write out only those words which are available to understanding, that is those which value is clear on a context. Of course, not in the isolated look, and creating for everyone the small context. Then, when you read the book in the second, and even for the third time, it is time to write out all other unknown words. However, no, not everything, but only those which you use in the native daily speech. As the obligatory rule, write out cognate words and phrases, so-called “bush“, “family“ (material for “bush“ can be found in the book or the dictionary), and it is desirable also set expressions and phraseological units.
However you will not get the most important of four language skills yet - “understanding of oral speech“. Having worked and having diligently rewritten the textbook, all of you do not gain rather correct impression about a pronunciation yet. Therefore it is necessary to stock up with a couple of audiobooks from the “Literature in Foreign Languages“ series or other similar editions it is desirable with option in the native language. In addition to audiobooks, as magnificent help viewing of movies and telecasts will serve in understanding of the foreign speech. In the course of listening I advise to write out unknown words in a notebook (in the beginning, and it is natural, the huge number of unknown words so write down those which you are in time meets, without prejudice to attention to the speech), and after transfer to find in the dictionary. Immediately, as the context of this word which helps and in case the word is heard incorrectly is still stored in memory (that happens quite often). In general, you are not lazy to consult a dictionary as often as possible even if the word is familiar to you, but in this concrete case you have a doubt in its value. Often, one and too the word has several absolutely different, and sometimes even opposite values.
Considering features of memory, words should be rewritten in fair a slovnik no later than the first two days, as if refreshing escaping from memory the knowledge gained the day before. It is connected with one of the basic principles of the organization of memory - a zabyvaniye. Zabyvaniye it is especially strong in the first 48 hours after perception of any material. The greatest percent of a zabyvaniye drops out for the first 24 hours. Therefore not to allow to develop to a zabyvaniye, it is necessary to consolidate the gained knowledge at once, “without delay“.
Of course, try to find for the teacher who can give you English bases. What, in turn, to wait from the teacher for - mentor? And what cannot be received neither from books, nor from movies and radio: 1) possibilities of communication at the speed accepted for you to try to catch as much as possible words; 2) possibilities of correction of your own pronunciation and understanding on the basis of the tasks performed by you to each lesson. In time the uncorrected mistake is dangerous! Repeating irregular shapes, you remember them and to get rid of them then very difficult.
The earlier you will begin to be engaged independently in translations, the quicker and your lexicon will be enriched more qualitatively, the quicker to you the understanding of the principles of creation of the English offer, so and understanding of language in general will come. At first read to
the text entirely, try to allocate the main thing, to catch sense of contents. Do not “go in cycles“ in separate unclear words and even offers. It is necessary to catch an overall picture of the narration, “idea“. It is possible even to make the written plan of the text, its structure.
I only then start scrupulous studying of material, the translation into the native language. Find the principal parts of the sentence, a subject and a predicate, and with their help you will find all other elements; to clear up as a result also sense of all offer. Sometimes, having even methodically and “frankly“ found all unknown and familiar words involved in the offer in the dictionary and having written out ALL values of these words, this most required offer “it does not want to be translated“, there is an improbable situation - “guessed all letters, but could not call the word“. Happens that all paragraph causes enormous difficulties when translating. And such incidents happen not only at beginners, but also at coryphaeuses of the translation, skilled tolmachy. LEAVE this offer or all paragraph entirely! You translate further. To you its Majesty Kontekst and your sharpness will come to the rescue. And as a result, “it`s in the bag“. The translation of once left “difficult“ fragment will seem easy walk, warm-up.
I once again I will repeat, you are not lazy to consult the English dictionary and to write out unknown words. This essential advantage of translation in comparison with oral speech concerning enrichment of a lexicon. In conversation in a foreign language you operate only with cash knowledge, the lexicon collects very slowly. And translation, continuous updating of the own dictionary - the vokabulyara allows to strengthen and develop a lexical arsenal constantly. In addition to the above practical advice on studying of any foreign language I will add one more important factor - need of thorough acquaintance to history and geography, economy and culture, art and literature of that nationality which language you decided to master. Such acquaintance even more brings closer our purpose: the deepest and broad acquaintance to a foreign language. And still. Surely make a trip to this country because without “immersion on Wednesday“ it is almost impossible to master language in perfection.
Every time, getting abroad, try to visit everywhere where it is only possible. Especially good means for studying of language - circulation at cinema. It would be ideal, of course, constantly and closely to communicate with native speakers, especially with those who with pleasure will undertake a role of the teacher - the proofreader on correction of errors of your oral speech.
Here some kind of simple recommendations that who really wants to master a foreign language.
Study a foreign language daily, at least on ten - fifteen minutes, it is desirable in the mornings.
If desire to be engaged vanishes from time to time, do not “force“, but do not give up study. Relax, have a rest. Switch attention to other form of work: postpone the book and listen to radio, leave exercises of the textbook and look through the dictionary etc. of
Try not to cram, NEVER learn the word and the phrase in a separation from the corresponding context; the important principle of the organization of memory is the understanding of the remembered material
Try to translate everything that catches sight mentally: an inscription on the poster, scraps of incidentally heard talk etc. Having woken up in the morning, first of all remember couple of phrases in required language - it exercise brings the brain which relaxed in a night into a tone. to
Thoroughly, “for ages“ you learn only what is corrected by the teacher and in correctness of what you have no doubts. Do not re-read own uncorrected exercises: at repeated reading material is involuntarily laid in the head with all possible mistakes. Ready phrases, idioms, proverbs and sayings write out
whenever possible together with short history of emergence and examples. be not afraid to tell
, be not afraid to make mistakes, and you ask that they were corrected. And the main thing, be not upset and do not take offense if to begin to correct you. Be firmly sure by
that at you everything will turn out. Your unbending will to success and unusual abilities to all foreign languages will help you to become the polyglot.