Victor Frankl about “roads“ to sense.
our freedom consist in a set of opportunities for action in the world. Before us inevitably there is a question: “What opportunity to choose? How it is correct to make the decision?“ We well know that freedom without responsibility is equal to an arbitrariness.
our decisions have to be proved and justified - the speech everything is goes about own life! Victor Frankl wrote
: “The person solves for himself, any decision is the decision for itself, the decision for himself the person has a formation of“
there is that internal freedom thanks to which it can change the relations to conditions of the life and to itself(himself). Victor Frankl writes: “The person is a being who can always tell “no“ to the inclinations“, “the person is a least of all product of heredity and an environment“, the person is a being who along with aspiration to pleasure uncontrollably aspires also to values. …. to be a person means to raise a question …. to live is to give the answer“.
Two important steps precede adoption of the correct decision.
the first step - collecting and the analysis of information.
the Step of the second - understanding of, as far as this information is significant for us.
We weigh each opportunity from the point of view of its importance and value. These two steps will create to us realistic orientation in circumstances for adoption of the subsequent decision.
Thus, before decision-making is required to imagine possible options. In each concrete situation only one way for the person is the best. Therefore is comprehended to live means in the best way to use the opportunities given by a situation.
of People is free in adoption of the decisions and cannot be deprived by this of freedom. The task connected with freedom consists in distinguishing options and to make decisions. Only this way, coming up against this or that situation, the person can find the best way. This way is called sense. Therefore, the sense can be defined as the opportunity arising from surrounding reality.
V. Frankl generalized these opportunities which on the value are sense conductors. Frankl describes three “highways to sense“ They help the person is comprehended to organize the life, especially when he desperately looks for sense.
Frankl enters a valuable triad where values are divided into three categories:
Ø values of creation (creativity);
Ø experience values;
Ø relation values.
Frankl tried to describe “richness of the world of values in all its completeness“. The person should not stop on one group of values, and has to be rather flexible if necessary to pass to another, revealing opportunities for the embodiment of meanings. Life demands from the person of exclusive flexibility in adaptation to chances which it gives it.
From the point of view of Frankl the priority belongs to values of creation (creativity) which main way of realization is work. It is important to emphasize that the sense and value gets work of the person as his contribution to life of society, but not just as its occupation. V. Frankl explains this situation as follows: “Until creative values or their realization are in the foreground of vital tasks, the area of their concrete embodiment coincides generally with professional activity. Work represents that field on which uniqueness of an individual is in relationship with community and receives, thus, sense and value. These the sense and value are inherent, however, in the achieved result (as to result for community), but not a concrete profession per se. Therefore, it is impossible to tell that only some certain profession allows the person to realize the opportunities. Any profession in itself does not make the person happy …. when the concrete profession does not bring content, the fault lies on the person, but not on a profession. The profession in itself does not do the person irreplaceable and unique yet; it only gives for this purpose chance“.
Important becomes what the person does over the official duties, namely as it introduces the personality in the work. Indispensability and need, uniqueness and originality are concluded in the person, in that as he creates, but not that he creates.
Frankl emphasizes that the relation of the person to the professional activity as to the possible field of realization of values of creativity and unique self-realization can be distorted considerably from - for the dominating working conditions. Under such circumstances work, of course, can be perceived as means for getting of the money necessary for own existence. Own existence begins in this case only in free time, the sense lies in its free personal filling. According to Frankl values of creativity are the most natural and important, but not necessary. Values of creativity are realized in the form of the progress or achievements which are socially interdependent.
the Following group of values are values of experience which are connected with the perception of the world which is internally enriching the person, for example beauty of the nature or a work of art. They can also fill with sense human life. The actual sense of a certain moment of human existence can be realized in simple experience, that is out of any action and out of any active valuable realization. For understanding of this fact V. Frankl suggests to make the following mental experiment: “let he will imagine that the person loving music sits in a concert hall, in his ears fine sounds of the favourite symphony sound, and he tests that awe which can be tested only at perception of the purest beauty; let he will imagine that at this moment will ask this person a question whether his life makes sense; asked will answer that thanking already to one this moment his life is justified. Most likely, it is even about one moment - on greatness of one this moment it is possible to measure greatness of all life: ridge height is measured on its highest top too. And in life - its sense is solved by its topmost moments, and one moment of life can fill it with the highest sense. Let`s ask about meaning of life of the person rising to mountains and enjoying beauty of the blossoming Alps. He is so captured by magnificence them that at it even goosebumps run on a back; it is unlikely his life ever in the future can become absolutely senseless after such experience“. Thus, the meaning of life can give, according to Frankl, backdating the unique moment, one brightest experience.
from among experience values Frankl in detail stops on love which has rich valuable potential. The love is a relationship at the level of spiritual (noetichesky), semantic measurement, experience of other person in his originality and uniqueness, knowledge of its deep essence: “love - not only favor, but also magic. For the loving person it gives to the world additional value. The love raises at loving perception of all scale of values. It opens to the person the world in all its valuable completeness. In the devotion to darling loving internally it is enriched: the whole world for it becomes wider and deeper, it blossoms under beams of those values which sees only loving; it is known that the love does the person not blind, but able to see - tsennostno to sighted people. Along with favor to be darling and the third moment - a love miracle exists magic of love also. Thanks to it something incomprehensible is made, namely the fact that on a sideway through biological the new personality, in turn also full of secret, uniqueness and originality of the existence starts out: child!“
Frankl enters three possible installations in relation to love. To three dimensions of the human person (corporal, mental, noetichesky) there correspond sexual installation, erotic installation, original love. Thus, simple sexual installation aims at physical data of the partner and as intension remains in this layer, the erotic relation, the relation of love is directed on mental, but “it also does not get to a kernel of other personality. It is done by only the third form of possible human relations: the original love“
Thus, love, according to Frankl, is the highest of possible forms erotic as it represents the deepest penetration into personal structure of orchestra seats, namely the introduction with it in communication at the spiritual level. Merge with spiritual in the partner characterizes the last from possible forms of partnership. At the same time and the love is not a necessary condition and the best option of judgment of life. The individual who never loved and was not a darling nevertheless can make the life intelligent.
Novelty of approach of Frankl is connected with the third group of values to which he pays the greatest attention - to relation values. The person should resort to these values when he appears in the power of circumstances which he is not able to change. But under any circumstances of people it is free to take an intelligent position in relation to them and to give to the suffering deep vital meaning. As soon as we add the value of the relation to the list of possible categories of values, Frankl writes, becomes obvious that human existence can never be senseless on the internal essence. Human life keeps the sense up to the end - to the last breath.
V. Frankl compared human life to a film. The film comes to an end, and together with it human life comes to an end. Everything that is represented on a film, it also is our life. Length of our life is not important. Quality of life is important. Quality of life is defined by acts. Each shot of a film is the moment from our life.