Medicine - mother of chemistry?
So, an eternal problem about chicken and egg, or about advantage of scientific genealogiya . The author restored the scientific genealogy made by the principle “the teacher → pupil“. The following sequence turned out:
Ch. Glaser (1615-1672, Switzerland), doctor of medicine, druggist →
N. L é mery (1645-1715, France), doctor of medicine, druggist →
of J. G. Spitzley (1690-1750, France) doctor of medicine, druggist →
of G. F. Rouelle (1703-1770, France), the druggist, the demonstrator of chemistry in the Royal botanical garden, the teacher A. L. Lavoisier →
of J. B. M. Bucquet (1746-1780, France), druggist →
of A. F. Fourcroy (1755-1809, France), doctor of medicine →
L. N. Vauquelin (1763-1829, France), first director of the Parisian pharmaceutical school →
of F. Stromeyer (1776-1835, Germany), the doctor of medicine, the general inspector of drugstores of Hanover, from the German professors of chemistry appointed between 1810 and 1840 twenty received training at Shtromeyer →
of R. W. Bunsen (1811-1899, Germany) - the chemist, the founder of the spectral analysis →
of F. A. Kekule (1829-1896, Germany) - the chemist, offered ring structure of → benzene;
of A. Âàåóår (1835-1917, Germany) - the chemist, everything painted - aniline → dyes;
of V. Meyer (1848-1897, Germany) - the chemist →
N. D. Zelinsky (1861-1953) - the chemist - an organik, the academician →
L. A. Chugayev (1873-1922) - the chemist, Chugayev`s reactant →
B. Hlopin (1890-1950) - the chemist, received the first Soviet radium, the participant of the nuclear USSR project, the academician →
A. N. Murin (1910-1990) - x. N, the head of a chair of radiochemistry I LIE →
S. I. Bondarevsky (river of 1938) - x. N →
N. E. Ablesimov (river of 1949) - brought up four candidates of science for the Far East ( S. A. Pyachin, D. L. Yagodzinsky, N. F. Karpovich, Yu. G. Malova ).
Unexpected the picture turned out. The eight first scientists among by training physicians (doctors, druggists, druggists)! It turned out that in the 17th and 18th centuries the chemistry developed in medicine! This period the author called chemistry for health .
Perhaps, accident? On the contrary. Paracelsus (1493-1541), the doctor and the scientist, one of founders of a yatrokhimiya , subjected to critical revision of idea of ancient medicine. Promoted introduction of chemical preparations in medicine. Paracelsus concerned both many questions of theoretical alchemy, and various data on mineral substances and their properties and, in particular, about their application as medicines.
Since Paracelsus scientists - chemists left mainly the circle of doctors and druggists. The chemistry began to be taught at medical faculties of universities, however, as an auxiliary subject. All this exerted a great influence on further development of a yatrokhimiya, in particular on expansion of a circle of substances which were applied as remedies. Separate substances and ways of their receiving, cleaning and processing in medicines were studied by many doctors and druggists. And it is clear - in chemistry was not synthesis . Drugs as ready substances, were got from minerals and plants.
Now the effect of doctoring is defined on 70% by existence of the drugs received as a result of chemical synthesis . Flu and pneumonia at the beginning of the XX century were deadly diseases. Any wound which was followed by suppuration came to an end with gangrene and death. The general result of application of achievements of chemistry in medicine is as follows: average life expectancy of the person for the XX century increased from 40 to 70 - 80 years, i.e. twice .
In Russia lectures on chemistry were given at the Moscow university since 1760 on medical and since 1804 on the physicist - mathematical faculties.
F. F. Reyss (1778-1852) is professor of chemistry at the Moscow university, the doctor of medicine . Upon termination of Tyubingensky university became chemical research of a lymph and lacteal juice of a horse, known in a scientific world, which made together with Emmert and thanks to which it was invited in 1803. in the Moscow university professor of chemistry, occupying at the same time department of professor of chemistry and pharmacology in the Moscow office of the physician - surgical academy (till 1839).
Since the 19th century chemistry was already registered for the physicist - mathematical faculties of the St. Petersburg and Kazan universities.
From 17 Nobel Prizes in chemistry of 1981-1997 seven awards are connected with biochemistry and molecular biology . They could be awarded and not in chemistry, and on physiology and medicine. Obviously, there are no own big achievements in chemistry any more. The preference is given to works in adjacent science which is in a stage of fast development.
But since division of medicine and chemistry of chemical problems in medicine became more, and snobbery of physicians prevents healthy integration of efforts here. For example, more than 40 chemical elements contain in a human body in trace quantities. Their biological role is not clear.
Now the chemistry develops in the direction chemistry for life . For example, the company Dupont proclaimed this priority at the beginning of this century and allocated for scientific researches in this direction 4 billion dollars. And it is correct. The consumer has to be healthy! Why to a yazvennik of coffee, an infarktnik of a cigarette, the recovered alcoholic vodka?
Thus, the circle became isolated. From chemistry for health the 16-18th centuries we came to chemistry for life the 21st century.