Who the author “the Fad - Gorbunka“? Let`s give Pushkina “our everything“...
Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov`s Death did not affect popularity “The fad at all - a gorbunka“. In pre-revolutionary Russia the fairy tale was republished 26 times and caused the mass of imitations and fakes (only in 1870 - 1890 - x years left about 40 counterfeit “Skates - Gorbunkov“).
The book “The Fad - a Skakunok“ of S. Basov which appeared in 1906 - Verkhoyantseva - the real political lampoon written without delay to revolution of 1905
In the Soviet Union the tale of the simple guy and the tsar became most popular “cover“ - the petty tyrant became even more popular and was republished more than 200 times. However, and here did not do without acceptable excesses. In 1922 the censor did not like a scene where the people shout to the tsar “hurrah“, and also a line “Vish that, old horse-radish, started: wants to reap where did not sow! “ in which he saw... “pornography“. In 1934 censors were confused already by all fairy tale in which as they wrote, “history of one remarkable career of the son of a rural fist“ is represented by . won against
But common sense, and the success of the fairy tale was powerfully supported remarkable art 1941 (cut. A. Rowe) and animated 1947 (cut. I. Ivanov - Vano) movies.
The brilliant successor of set it is national - parody tradition Yershov found in the person of the actor Leonid Filatov who wrote in 1985 “The narration about Fedot - a Sagittarius, the daring good fellow“. “Narration“ openly sent us to style “The fad - a gorbunka“, but its satire found an actual social shade.
“It is good whether the message is bad, -
of Dokladay to me all as is!
is better bitter, but the truth,
Than pleasant, but flattery!
Only if an enta a message
is Again - not God knows,
You for about ten Years can sit down at the such truth
But here in 1996 on a nice name of Yershov the shadow for the first time ran. No, “The fad - a gorbunka“ was not going to be forbidden, it was just wanted to be selected... at the author. A. Latsis`s article “Became first “swallow“ return a horse!“, where the author surely demands to give Yershov`s monasteries... To Pushkin. Through some time V. Perelmuter publishes “The fad - a gorbunka“ on which title cover the name of Pushkin already frankly flaunts (the truth with a question mark), and then to Latsis`s business - Perelmutera is actively connected V. Kozarovetsky.
How history “The fad - a gorbunka“ in a statement of a Trinity of “unmaskers“ looks? And it looks so. Pushkin writes “The fad - a gorbunka“, but understands that he will not be able to publish it under the name. Like, much it allowed in the fairy tale of political allegories. So in an image of an artful sleeping bag none other than are brought the chief of the Nikolaev gendarmes - Benkendorf; the whale suffering from the fact that swallowed “three tens ships“ is the state which condemned Decembrists, and the tsar who is dragged for the very young maiden - at all the Nicholas I rendering signs of attention to Pushkin`s wife.
In order that the fairy tale nevertheless was issued, Pushkin plans smart mystification in which he involves Pletnev and other necessary persons. Pletnev finds the naive student in disastrous financial position and suggests it to rewrite the manuscript of “Fad“ for a payment and to put under it the name.
according to Latsis - Perelmutera - Kozarovetsky explains these a lot of things - and how it managed to the young man to write such brilliant fairy tale in 18 years, and why after it it is not possible to write anything similar, and why it burned the manuscripts and the diary. On it researchers did not calm down. They decided that Yershov the changes in editions 1856 and 1861 of years only spoiled and distorted the initial version of “Fad“ written in clear language of Pushkin. Therefore it was decided “to correct“ Yershov now.
“... I had most to undertake recovery of the Pushkin text and its edition. I analysed edition of the edition of 1834, created all corrections and additions of 1856 and the final text of the fairy tale by the principle: in all cases when corrections obviously worsen the text, they are rejected as ershovsky; when corrections considerably improve the text, they are accepted - as Pushkin, for the rest (where advantage of this or that edition is not so obvious) having relied on own intuition in the movement behind the course of Pushkin thought“.
What self-confident statement, isn`t that so? The intuition is of course, a thing good, but let`s look whether so Yershov strongly worsened the initial text. Let`s begin with the well-known first quatrain, that which, according to the publisher Smirdin, was written by Alexander Sergeyevich. In the first edition it sounded so:
“Behind mountains, behind the woods,
Behind the wide seas,
Not in the sky - on the earth
there Lived an old man in one village“.
In the edition of 1861. Yershov replaces the third line with “Against the sky - on the earth“ , and, according to many, this editing more than is successful - in the first case expression excessively and senselessly (well with what to the old man to live in the sky?), in the second - it becomes poetical and figurative. It is amusing that since 1915 these four verses even printed in Pushkin collected works (together with Ershovsky editing!) so far in 1936 M. Azadovsky did not convince literary critics that Pushkin`s authorship is not so clear here - a pier, hardly Yershov at his piety before Alexander Sergeyevich would decide to govern his lines. Here still it is possible to argue - it is admissible, I do not think that the piety would prevent the real poet to make more successful change in the work (Pushkin - that did not apply for authorship and in general share of a role of Pushkin in “The fad - a gorbunka“ is unknown).
About other changes, of course, it is possible to argue. Yes, Yershov really replaced many clear words and expressions with colloquial - well so them and in the first option was more than enough (and it is not characteristic of language of fairy tales of Pushkin). Here the desire of the author even more to bring closer the fairy tale to folk speech is quite clear.
Is, of course, and dissonant replacements - for example, “If is needs me / If again I am forced...“ - but can give also other examples.
See a fragment from 1 - go editions and nearby (in brackets) the lines corrected later:
“A mare young,
the Back, the rehouse kicking, (Ochyyu without restraint sparkling)
Rushed on fields, (A dragon twisted the head)
On the mountains and on the woods. (Also it was let as an arrow.) zaskacht
, it will be hammered, (Curls around over fields)
suddenly will abruptly turn. (Hangs plastyyu it is necessary ditches)
But the fool himself also is not simple - (Rushes skoky on the mountains) Strong holds
a tail. (Goes on end on the woods) “.
“ The fool sits down on it, (On the fad Ivan sits down) Is strong
for ears a beret, (Ears in get a beret)
Gorbunok - the fad rises, (That there are mochushka roars.) shakes
by the Black grivka, (Gorbunok - the fad was stirred up)
comes out To the road; (Rose on pads, started)
Suddenly began to neigh and zakhrapet, (Slapped a grivka, zakhrapet)
I an arrow departed“
Other arguments of supporters of “mystification“ are scattered already only because they are not documented, and sometimes and roughly distort the known facts. Let`s say why Pushkin was afraid to publish under the name of “Fad“, but quietly published the same year not less “seditious“ fairy tale “About the Golden Cockerel“? And why it cannot be the authors who became famous only for one book? And Griboyedov with “Woe from Wit“? And Ken Kesey with “One Flew Over the Cuckoo`s Nest“?
About it very neatly the Tyumen journalist A. Omelchuk - “Joked if Pushkin - our everything, so we give it all our?! “ . However, except “Pushkin“ there is also other theory - that “The fad - a gorbunka“ the musician - the harpist Nikolay Devitte wrote (moreover and to Yershov threw up separate successful verses), which I here even do not want to sort. The opinion of the expert about “Pushkin mystification“ is detailed to recognize everyone, I recommend to study T. Savchenkova`s article “the Fad - Gorbunok“ in a mirror of “sensational literary criticism“.
And a verdict to Kozarovetsky`s inquiries in the Pushkin commission the chairman V. Nepomnyashchy brought in 2009 it: “You at first prove
that it was Pushkin, and then expose Yershov. It is known that Pushkin wrote the first four verses and made amendments to Yershov`s text, all the rest - conjectures. The invention cannot be disproved, at least the Institute of the world literature and the Pushkin commission will not begin to be engaged in it“.
“My fad jumped on all Russian kingdom again. Happy to it way! Having caught a praise to itself from such talented people as Pushkin, Zhukovsky and Pletnev, and having galloped during this time all longitude and the latitude of the Russian land, he thinks of attacks of the dominating school very little and amuses lyud honest, old and small. also will amuse their still Russian word will find an echo in the Russian soul, i.e. till the end of time“.