Rus Articles Journal

The fairy tale - lie and in it a hint? The chronicle of miracles

thoughts Boiled at me, so to speak. I brought together big library of the books mainly familiar to me on the childhood. There are a lot of any stories and stories written by the Soviet authors for pioneers and Octobrists but also there is very widespread genre of the literary fairy tale.

In the childhood to me each book seemed fascinating and I did not calm down, did not read it up to the end yet. And now I look - not all authors honestly approached the business. And just most of all potboilers were active as storytellers.

What is the fairy tale? It is the first type of creativity with which in general the child gets acquainted. Absolutely tiny kids of mother or the grandmother are told for the night something about hare or a greyish goat. Then begin to read aloud and to show pictures in the book. At first the Russian national fairy tales, then, when the child grows up - fairy tales of other people, and also written by our and foreign writers. Of course, children at us usually got acquainted with strongly adapted versions of fairy tales of Perrault, brothers Grimm, Andersen as original versions are hardly clear even to adults. As there realities of other times, other countries are reflected. Well in any case truth is presented absolutely serious there. “Little Red Riding Hood“ so in general was initially written not for children.

But as the fairy tale began to be considered as a genre first of all for children`s reading over time, it was adjusted to the corresponding audience. The same brothers Grimm read to nearly one children now. Though Jacob Grimm investigated the folklore layer which was handed down by hunters and woodcutters on halts, travelers on inns, shepherds during long winter evenings when the herd winters in the shelter.

I rather learned recently that Gauf`s fairy tales are united in a whole by several cycles when the group of story-tellers gathers and will hardly finish one, picks up another. By the way, and the movie was “A tavern in Shpessart“. There are travelers not to fall asleep and to miss attack of robbers, poisoned stories one for another. “The caliph - a stork“ is a fairy tale from the cycle “Caravan“, and “Small Torments“ - “The sheikh and his slaves“. Generally, the European storytellers were educated people and on creation of the collection of fairy tales at them many forces left, they interwove into the narration and geography, both history, and tendencies in science of the time, even the description of goods which caravan is lucky, impresses with the documentation, it in the adapted retellings confine to general phrases like “gold - diamonds“. And Gauf in such paints describes - spices, an incense, is quiet, aromas everyones, fabrics, colored the cochineal insect... All this was far more expensive, than gold. Europe then depended on east merchants who through Venice delivered pepper without which did not do in cookery any more, and sugar which production secret Europe did not know yet, but consumed already in tons. And so. Fairy tales in itself were of great value in the informative relation.

The Russian national fairy tales also reflected many any facts. Here both mystical beliefs ancient Slavic and Ugra - the Finnish people, and the relation with neighboring countries, and specifics of national crafts, and movements on deaf roads. Pushkin, Zhukovsky and other educated people showed to folk art huge interest, just as Charles Perrault to simple baizes of peasants.

With the advent of early primitive printing equipment there was a genre of a popular print on which residents of the cities and villages got acquainted with world around, its events and the phenomena. Popular prints told about fulfillments of tsars and kings, large fights, legendary heroes and overseas wonders. They were sold in exhibition days in the cities and pedlars carried on villages and villages. In Europe there was a similar genre of lithograph - like that engraving which was considered by the adviser of justice in “Happiness galoshes“ of Andersen. On the English engraving, in particular, the scene of execution of Stepan and Frol Razinykh was imprinted. I have also a photocopy of the engraving representing the travelers who are driving up to Moscow.

Miyazaki, the talented modern storyteller, almost literally transferred the perception of the Baba-yaga characteristic of our ancestors in an image of the character Yubaby. Behind the river there is a kingdom of the dead, a hostess it is the ugly old woman on whose some lines it is possible to guess her belonging to the world of spirits. “A bone leg“ - the stone which is not covered with flesh on a leg, spirits are incorporeal. An izba of the Baba-yaga - a funeral felling in which the death pack - a mortar is placed. Later the image of a coffin gave way to a big mortar in which pound grain, and in general the Baba-yaga acquired household items of countrymen. Just to herself cooked food from mice, frogs and poisonous plants. And also magical potions from the herbs collected at night on a bog or on a cemetery where the person of own will will not be put after sunset.

By the way, the image of the Baba-yaga was affected by Scythian priestesses who by means of special medicines plunged for a while into a lethargy. As if made a trip to a next world...

Be continued.