Who the author “The fad - a gorbunka“? The press and censorship of
we Will stop on printing destiny of the fairy tale “The Fad - a Gorbunok“ now. Once Pletnev studied the fairy tale of Yershov, from its giving in May of the same 1834 the first part was published in the Library for Reading magazine.
The editor of the magazine O. Senkovsky preceded the publication by very flatter preface where reported about “new, very remarkable talent... the young Siberian who still completes the education at local university“ and added that “readers will estimate its advantages and force of language, kind simplicity, cheerfulness and abundance of successful pictures between which we will call one in advance - the description of the horse market - a picture, worthy to stand along with the best places of the Russian easy poetry“.
A in September, 1834 “The fad - the gorbunok“ left already completely and the separate edition. Completely - that completely and not absolutely. Censorship fairly worked over the text, and the reader could only guess that is behind dots of the dirtied lines. And all disappeared in them familiarly - disrespectful addresses of Ivan to the tsar, and also such passages of the tsar as:
“Cried (from impatience), Having confirmed to
with the Fast wave of a fist:
“Gay! To call to me the fool!“
(the last two lines - S. K.) were removed
On a twist of fate the university teacher of Yershov A. Nikitenko was a censor.
Along with laudable responses to the fairy tale were also unflattering. For example, Vissarion Belinsky wrote the following:
“As if attentively listened you to an echo of the Russian fairy tales, as if carefully were forged under their tone and a harmony and as if there were your verses, the fake will always remain a fake, from - for a homespun coat your dress coat will be always seen. In your fairy tale there will be Russian words, but there will be no Russian spirit and therefore, despite masterful finishing and sonority of a verse, it will overtake for one boredom and yawning. That is why Pushkin`s fairy tales, despite all charm of a verse, did not make the slightest success. About the fairy tale of Yershov - needless to say. It is written by very not bad verses, but, for the above reasons, has not only any art advantage, but even no advantage of the amusing farce“.
Usually acute critic was mistaken - the Russian people very quickly recognized the fairy tale of the. The friend and the biographer of Yershov A. Yaroslavtsov wrote the author of the fairy tale that he saw how the office official rewrote “The fad - a gorbunka“ by hand. And the brightest denial of words of Belinsky was the fact that, left national elements, the fairy tale of Yershov managed in the natural way to these elements and to return. Images and plots of the author`s fairy tale began to exert impact on folklore! Not without reason A. Afanasyev included “The fad - a gorbunka“ in the well-known collection Russians national (!) fairy tales!
Unfortunately, the glory of the fairy tale did not heat the beams of the author. His father died, problems with health from - for humid Petersburg climate began, and the most important - Yershov could not find work in any way.
Was necessary to return to “young talent“ in 1836 to the Siberian Tobolsk and to become the teacher in a gymnasium. Plans to return to St. Petersburg in 1838 did not come true. Pushkin dreaming to publish “The fad - a gorbunka“ “with pictures and to publish it at perhaps cheap price, in a huge number of copies“ died. None of capital acquaintances could help Yershov with employment (or did not want). Besides the writer married the widow with four children and completely wallowed in provincial life. Once in a raid of “melancholy“ it even burned all the manuscripts and other notes what very much was sorry about (and as the subsequent literary critics were sorry!) .
The literary creativity which blossomed during the St. Petersburg period declined too. There was unrealized a courageous plan 10 - the languid poem “Ivan Is the Tsarevitch and a Grey Wolf“ from which there were only small fragments. Other verses, stories and plays did not make special success (unless Yershov participated in the play “Chereposlov“ of the famous project “Kozma Prutkov“). And there was Pyotr Pavlovich the author of one book. But what!
Career “The fad - the gorbunka“ proceeded. In 1840 there is the second, and in 1847 - the third edition of the fairy tale (the last even without contract with the author). Both editions kept the same acceptable dots, as the first. the publisher P. Krasheninnikov wanted to publish
In 1851 the next time “The fad - a gorbunka“, but censorship made so many additional changes that the text lost integrity. The censor writes the following response: “According to contents the fairy tale intends for the simple people, and consists in life not natural as tsar welded in a copper, and the queen married Ivanushka the little fool … I believe such story not to corresponding concepts and educations“.
When three years later Yershov asks to publish the fairy tale - at least and with notes - the censor refuse to it even it in it, declaring: “In amusing transformations which were done by the little fool by means of the Fad - a gorbunka the expressions having a touch to the authorities put from the government meet...“.
How here not to remember the word of an artful sleeping bag from the fairy tale:
“… I in a thought imperial will inform, of
That the equerry gosudarsky -
the Infidel, vorozhy,
the Magician and the villain;
That it with a demon bread - salt drives,
does not go To God`s church, Katolitskaya`s
holds a cross
I posts meat eats“.
as a result in the middle of 1850 - x the fairy tale of Yershov is almost forgotten. But here Nicholas I dies, the political climate is softened, and the same Nikitenko that was a censor of the first edition of “Fad“, convinced the new minister of education A. Norova to allow to print the fairy tale of Yershov moreover and without acceptable lacunas.
“To approve this composition to reprinting, both on the literary popularity deserved it, and in its general direction which loyalty is not broken by easy, harmless jokes“.
Taking an opportunity, Yershov itself edited the new edition - added which - what details, made rhyming more exact and added a set of demotic words and turns to the text. 4 - e the edition appeared in 1856. Yershov made the last changes in 5 - e the edition of 1861 which text began to be considered initial, the most fully expressing will of the author.
During lifetime of Yershov “The fad - the gorbunok“ will be republished two more times (1865, 1868). Life does not indulge the author. His wife dies, he marries the second time, but in several years also the second wife dies. From 15 children 11 died even in infancy. The only career success - from the teacher of a gymnasium he becomes her director - not much more improves material welfare of Yershov. His former pupil and the husband of his stepdaughter - to the famous chemist Dmitry Mendeleyev - manages to obtain pension, and the patient 50 - summer Yershov leaves work that four years later to rest in the same Tobolsk.
When in 1869 “Sankt - the St. Petersburg sheets“ reported about death of the author “The fad - a gorbunka“, many were surprised: “And we he thought for a long time it is dead“ .
The termination follows...