Who the author “The fad - a gorbunka“? A national vein of
Despite folklore loans and influence of fairy tales of Pushkin, it is difficult not to see originality and novelty “The fad - a gorbunka“. Pushkin`s style clearer and simple, rhymes more exact.
Language of the fairy tale of Yershov is brought consciously closer to informal conversation ( “And went to a long journey... / Give, brothers to have a rest!“ ) is also preceded by playful beginnings and introductions, it seems:
“… As at our at gate
the Fly sings a song: “That you will give
to me for a vestka?
Beats the mother-in-law the daughter-in-law:
Put on a perch,
Bound for a lace,
of the Handle to legs attracted,
the Leg right undressed:
“Do not go you on dawns!
do not seem to good fellows!“
an introduction was conducted,
Here and the fairy tale began...“
besides the fairy tale is simply sated with colloquial expressions. Today this only thing that complicates perception of quite harmoniously written fairy tale and demands notes. For example: “ìàëàõàé“ (long wide clothes without belt), “ïëàñòüþ“ (layer, not movably), “-that did not measure words“ (i.e. did not check), “Here tobacco razvest...“ (here tobacco “a fire, a spark“), “endova“ (ware for wine), “sleeping bag“ (the imperial servant), “shabalka“ (a sabbath, the end), “press“ (a press for squeezing of vegetable oil), “reach“ (tail), “Guests! Unlock benches...“ (here “guests“ means “merchants“ - you remember, “Sadko, the rich guest...“?) “popular prints“ (the pictures printed about the matrixes on a lime board and accompanied with signatures - the local book genre popular among a commonalty), “week“ (week), “To get toyo Heat - a bird“ (i.e. “To get that Heat - a bird“) etc. Which - where not to do also without more detailed comments.
For example, the mare speaks to Ivan:
“... But the fad do not give
Neither for a belt, nor for a cap,
for black, hear, the grandma...“
of the Grandma are the bones of joints of hoofed animals used in the ancient game of the same name. Grandmas it was necessary to force down a bat - special, painted black color, the grandma in whom for weight filled in lead.
And here brothers, justifying theft of horses, speak to Ivan:
“Our dear brother Ivasha,
What to go - our business;
But take you into account
our Not mercenary stomach... “
“Stomach“ is the obsolete word designating “life“ (“Not to spare the stomach“), and also “property, good, prosperity“. I.e., “our not mercenary stomach...“ - means “our poor life“, “our small prosperity“.
Language of the fairy tale of Yershov in many respects lapidaren is also full of rough humour:
“... Here, having made to the tsar bow,
the Ruff went, having bent.
has a quarrel With imperial domestics,
Behind small fry povolochitsya by
I to salakushka of six
the Nose it broke into ways“.
National comedy is completely embodied by the hero of the fairy tale - Ivan the Fool. At the same time Ivan not the ideal character. One of reviewers of the fairy tale in 1843 will write
: “Younger - the fool, the idler who only also did that lay on the furnace and ate peas and beans, became rich and married on the Tsar - the Maiden. It is investigative, nonsense, parasitism, idleness - the most right way to human happiness. The Russian proverb speaks: be not born is nice, he is clever, be born it is happy, - and now, after the fairy tale of Yershov, it is necessary to speak: be not born he is nice and clever, and be born the fool, prazdnolyubets and the glutton. It is amusing that the narrow heads mad about the so-called morality, preaching virtue and caring for innocence of children, recommend them the fairy tale of Yershov as pleasant and instructive reading!“
On what Yershov it is angry will notice:
“… scold one for morals, calling them copies from children`s copy-books, and scold me for the fact that it is impossible to remove maxims for children to whom appoint my fairy tale. You will think where are simple Pushkin and Zhukovsky seeing something in “Fad“ is more story for children“.
Actually naturalness of an image of Ivan (such analog of the clown - Parsley) also caused sympathy in many readers. Yes, it is not ideal and, it with laziness and, he is a sloven, the mischievous person and the sly fellow. But at the same time it is good-natured and forgiving, cheerful and cheerful, deprived of greed (Heat - birds and what results was only once flattered on a feather) when it is necessary - is courageous, desperate and resourceful. He understands nothing in ranks and subordination and addresses the tsar familiarly:
“Miraculously business! Well, I Will become
, the tsar, you to serve.
Only, chur not to fight with me
I to allow me to get enough sleep,
A not that I was such is!“
Well matched to Ivan and his assistant - the Fad - a gorbunok. It too the third in a family, and too “aberration“. However behind external ugliness the magic power and judiciousness which so sometimes is not enough for Ivan is covered. The image of the Fad is original and had no close analogs to Yershov (the horses helping heroes were, as on selection, a handsome) - appearance represents it a certain hybrid of a horse, donkey and camel.
“Growth only in three vershoks,
On a back with two humps
Yes with archin ears …“
U of many (including) the description of the Fad caused clear bewilderment in me - having counted arshins and vershoks, appeared that the assistant Ivana was a little more than 13 cm in height and with ears of 70 cm. Even for the fairy tale it was too disproportional. But also to it there was an explanation.
Alexander Chudakov “The fad - a gorbunok“: “Sometimes ignorance of a word meaning or the reality standing behind it leads
to a distortion of meaning.... The matter is that in old times the quantity of vershoks in relation to human height or a horse meant over: for the person - how many vershoks over two arshins, for a horse - over one. It means that the hero of the story of Turgenev of “Mumu“, the mute athlete Gerasim who was twelve vershoks had growth under two meters (71 x 2 + 52,8 = 194,8 cm). Growth of the Fad - a gorbunka, thus, was equal in withers (71 + 4,4 x 2) = 79,8 cm. Not a cavalry, of course, horse, but all - growth from a small burro or a pony on whom nevertheless it is possible to walk all“.
we Will return to stylistics to the fairy tale and we will look whether really it is just successful stylization under folklore. Zde it is worth paying attention to an assessment of professor V. Evseev who acutely called “The fad - a gorbunka“ “parodiyno - folklore“ the fairy tale where “the romantic irony of the author sets the tone“. The attentive reader will easily hear as, leading the narration in a national key, Yershov from outside laughs at this nationality. Especially obviously it is visible in the description of how Ivan perceives fine from the country point of view. Here he estimates
the Tsar - the maiden:
“... This is not beautiful at all:
I is pale - is thin,
Tea, in a grasp - three vershoks;
A a nozhonka - that a nozhonka!
Fie you! As if at a chicken!
Let will be fallen in love to a lump,
Ya and gift I will not take.
… Here is how in marriage - that will keep up,
So probably and will grow stout...“
Abundance of light radiated Heat - birds, Ivan measures by “caps“, and describes birds so:
“To say Not Cha, fear are beautiful!
of the Leg red at all;
A tails - that is real laughter! Tea, such chickens have no
A how many, the guy, to light -
As if the father`s furnace!“ at the same time Ivan as the normal rural boy wants “to frighten“ by
these birds. And in the middle of this comical scene rise of birds is described already from the author`s point as a fine show:
“A bright flame sparkling,
Started all pack,
the Circle fiery was twisted by
I for clouds rushed.
A our Ivan after them
And waves and shouts,
As if is poured by lye“. Yershov also skillfully interweaves
into one subject thread and archaic national ideas of the universe. It and the place of a convergence of the Sky with Earth, “where peasants spin flax, / put Distaffs on the sky“. And a heavenly tower of Month of Mesyatsovich who naturally crowns “an orthodox Russian cross“. And “A miracle - yudo Fish - a whale“ which in ancient beliefs acted as the holder of sushi.
the Parody “The fad - a gorbunka“ is noticeable also in the description of an underwater kingdom where everything is so similar to the device of imperial Russia.
“The bream, an uslysha this order,
Nominal wrote the decree;
of Som (it was called the adviser) was signed by
Under the decree;
the Black crayfish the decree put
I of the press put...“ , at last, the capacious and well-aimed lines which are easily engraved in the memory of the reader are characteristic
I of the fairy tale:
“What, Ivanushka, is gloomy?
What hung up a golovushka?“
... The trouble is big, I do not argue;
But can be helped by me burn.
... But, to tell you on friendship,
Is a sluzhbishka, not service“.
“And that no freak deceived the people of“
“the Gay! To call to me Ivan!“ -
the Tsar hasty cried
I slightly itself did not run“.
“Two times crossed, -
Boom in a copper - and there cooked!“ Not without reason Yershov will tell
about success of the fairy tale: “I managed to get into a national vein. Rang out native, and the Russian heart responded“.