Who the author “The fad - a gorbunka“? To birthday of Pyotr Yershov
On Tobolsk the Zavalny cemetery there is a marble gravestone on which the paradoxical epitaph is written: “Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov, author of the national fairy tale “The Fad - a Gorbunok“. It would seem how the “national“ fairy tale can have “author“? Maybe Pyotr Pavlovich just wrote down a national plot how he modestly noticed more than once? Or its “Fad“ skipped away in the people after writing?
On it questions of an origin of the well-known fairy tale are not settled because in the second half of 1990 - x years on mass media the sensational hypothesis which attributes authorship “The fad - a gorbunka“ not to Yershov and even not to the people at all, and absolutely to other authors dispersed...
the introduction was,
of Necha to run carelessly,
we Will understand one after another...
1834 Went. The teacher of department of the Russian literature of Sankt - the St. Petersburg university Pyotr Aleksandrovich Pletnyov, as usual, came to audience, but instead of lecture unexpectedly began to read the unknown naughty fairy tale:
“At a starinushka three sons:
the Senior clever was the big fellow,
the Average son this way and that,
Younger was the fool at all...“ When it finished
, the delighted audience demanded to call the author. Then - that Pletnev declared that he read actually term paper on folk art which was written by their colleague - the student. Also specified on happy and confused 18 - the summer young man - Pyotr Yershov.
Friend of Yershov V. Grigoriev:
“He was able to excite hunting to try the forces in different labor of literary works in listeners and soon at its department studentsky exercises about what there could not be also a thought were while this department was occupied by his predecessor. The Fad - Gorbunok of“ Yershov“ was between other and written from boredom at boring lectures, inimitable on cheerfulness and ease “.
But it was only the beginning of glory of the student filosofsko - law department (it is necessary to tell, not the most diligent). Events developed promptly. The same year Pletnev acquaints with the fairy tale and its author literary circles of the capital, without excluding also Pushkin. The author of “Tsar Saltan“ and “Goldfish“ enthusiastically met emergence “The fad - a gorbunka“. “Now I can and leave this sort of compositions“, - Alexander Sergeyevich declared and added: “This Yershov knows Russian a verse as the serf man“.
M. Znamensky, a conversation recording with Yershov at the end of 1863: to
“- you were familiar with Pushkin?
- Yes, I was at it if pull out to it. I was scary sensitive. All it seemed to me that over me he laughs, for example: time I told that I prefer the homeland. He also speaks:
- Yes to you also Siberia should not love, - in - the first, is your homeland, in - the second, is the country of clever people.
seemed to me that he laughs. Then understood that he reminds of Decembrists“.
the Publisher A. Smirdin reports that Pushkin not only met “The fad - a gorbunka“ with live approval, but also subjected it to “careful revision“, and also wrote “the first four verses“ to it. Unfortunately, we do not know what changes actually consisted in and Alexander Sergeyevich`s councils - remained manuscripts, notes. Not all researchers agree with that, as the first quatrain -
Behind mountains, behind the woods,
Behind the wide seas,
Not in the sky, on the earth
there Lived an old man in one village...
- belongs to Pushkin. Supporters of authorship of Pushkin, except Smirdin`s certificates, provide “Inventory“ of his papers where also the document “The Title and Dedication of the Fad - Gorbunka“ is among other things mentioned. Opponents of this point of view parry that and) the document is not found; b) “The title and dedication“ - all this is something absolutely another, than the text of a verse.
However, and without it influence of fairy tales of Pushkin on “The fad - a gorbunka“ is noticeable with the naked eye. Yershov`s fairy tale is written by the same size, as “Tsar Saltan“ - namely 4 - a hstopny trochee (he is chosen as poets not incidentally because the trochee with its accent on the first syllable is characteristic of national poetry) and with abundance of verbs. It is a lot of sendings to Pushkin and in the text “The fad - a gorbunka“ - “tsar Saltan“, “The new coffin in the wood costs, / In a coffin the maiden lies...“, “Guns from fortress scorch...“. also coincidence of plots of the fairy tale of Yershov and “Golden Cockerel“ Pushkin Is amusing
- the old tsar wants to take in both in the wife the captivated overseas maiden (at Yershov I reign 70, and the maiden - only 15 years) and cruelly pays for it. By then “Cockerel“ existed only in the manuscript, and Yershov could not know about it. But Pushkin, having seen muster of plots, even made small change, having transferred a tent of the Shamakhansky queen from the seashore (where there was a tent and the Tsar - maidens of Yershov) to mountains (it A. Akhmatova noticed).
But not only Pushkin the author “The fad - a gorbunka“ was inspired...
It is known that Yershov`s homeland was Siberia. He was born on March 6, 1815 in the village of Bezrukovo of the Tobolsk province, but since the childhood carried him after the official - the father on the different Siberian cities. In each of them the boy with greed absorbed local fairy tales and legends and itself was eager to compose. “To bring together more old women, and so and the fairy tale“ - as that was told by Yershov. Besides he declared that he in “The fad - a gorbunka“ only retold already available national plots.
And, really, separate subject lines of work of Yershov can be found in such Russian national fairy tales as “Heat - a bird and Vasilisa - the tsarevna“, “Sivka - a felt cloak“, “A magic horse“... And not only in Russians. Very similar plot occurs in the Italian collection of Straparola of the 16th century under the name “Pleasant Nights“ (it by the way, inspired also Pushkin). With the tale of the tsarevitch Livoretto the hero is helped too by a magic horse by means of whom it executes the sultan`s tasks - kidnaps the princess Bellizandra, looks for her drowned ring, and then gets water of life. Bellizandra holds the cruel presentation: kills Livoretto, and then recovers and rejuvenates him by means of water of life. Nobody began to recover the sultan moved on this experiment, of course.