Women are composers: what they were?
Who woman: vessel of a sin or well of virtues? Disputes these old, one of similar led to the fact that the woman who began to write music was born. Actually, women are composers - the phenomenon is more more ancient.
They were in Ancient Egypt. The classical antiquity knew many women composing verses - music (and then everything was in a complex, art was uniform). The name glorified by Safo from the island of Lesbos is familiar to much.
But it is considered that the first famous woman - the composer in the western sense of the word was born in Byzantium more than 1000 years ago. Called her the Cassia, and it is known as the Cassia Constantinople - the poetess, the nun, the composer. The Cassia in 805 or in Constantinople, then the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was born 810.
Too clever to become the empress of the Eastern Roman Empire
Very extraordinary woman was the Cassia Constantinople . Clever, talented, very educated. There was it from a notable family, could become the empress. But about it said that too she is clever to become the empress. Here such whether kind, whether back-handed compliment - even you do not know how to react.
And still the Cassia was beautiful. She even participated in those beauty contests. And then they were too - reviews of beauties - but with “noble purpose“ of the choice of the wife for the emperor, but not just like that. Such Bride - show on - Byzantine. However, this history is sometimes challenged as the Cassia was already too old - all - 25 years! But never the fact that it was very much and very beautiful was challenged.
Besides documents and certificates remained. The emperor Felfil was struck on the spot by beauty of the Cassia. It approached it with apple (and it was the symbol) and started conversation as it is necessary at acquaintance. He told that the woman - the reason of all evils (meaning Eve and exile from paradise). What the Cassia dared to object to that the woman - also the reason of any good (meaning the maiden Maria). Here such strange dialogue happened on shows. The cassia did not allow the emperor genderno - incorrect statements therefore it was not chosen. The crown (real, imperial) got another - to Feodora. That knew and appreciated an old Byzantine saying: “Silence - gold“. In those days to men, probably, the question was not important in the relations with women at all: “And to talk?“ In Byzantium the woman had
a wide choice in life: or in marriage, or to the monastery, another is not given. The cassia was also going to the monastery, but the woman it was also active, active therefore based own. She directed the monastery, wrote verses and composed music for services. About 50 musical liturgical compositions of the Cassia remained (and more than 800 secular verses). These are the unique works much surpassing anthems of those years which wrote men.
So, the first woman - the composer is considered the Cassia - a pesnopisitsa, sacred Orthodox church (memory on September 7, on October 16). Its works already as are included more 1000 into prayer books. And it - too a case unique. History is connected with one of the well-known and very beautiful anthems of the Cassia which sounds in all churches worldwide on the Sticheron of the Great Environment romantic (but already semi-legendary). As though the emperor Theophilus did not forget the Cassia at all and before the most death arrived to it to the monastery. The cassia composed the next anthem at this time. Having seen Theophilus, it hid. The emperor came, sat, read anthem verses, entered one line. Also left though noticed the secluded town in which the abbess hid. It did not begin to disturb her. And the Cassia quietly added this anthem.
There are no documents and certificates on this meeting any more, but the legend proving that these two did not forget each other lives. As there lives the this composed anthem. Here such there was a Cassia - “the woman, too clever to become the empress“.
In three centuries after the Cassia in the territory of modern Germany Hildegarda Bingenskaya was born. About it it is already a little written though eccentricity of this woman demands huge works.
Brigitta Schwedskaja (1303-1373) - one more extraordinary woman Srednevekovya, and one more sacred (Catholic church).
The first half of life of this woman passed rather “usually“: in 13 years a marriage, 30 years in marriage, 8 children (one of daughters is also esteemed as sacred). After death of the husband Brigitta devoted herself to church, based an award (the award a brigittok - and now this monastic order exists, 700 years already soon). One of churches of this award can be seen in the city of Grodno, in Belarus.
Brigitta moved to Rome soon. From there she made several palomnichestvo, after the last trip to Jerusalem died at the age of 70 years. She was canonized practically at once after death. And recently Brigitta was proclaimed by the patroness of Europe - along with other five Saints among whom and Kirill with Mefodiy.
As well as it is necessary, Brigitta Schwedskaja composed songs. Verses and Hildegarda and Brigitta`s music are considered as top of spiritual poetry and music of the Middle Ages. But there were also women of fashion who composed the songs. So, history knows names of several women - troubadours. They sang already about love, about advantages and insidiousness of the beloved.
Having jumped over centuries, we appear in Italy the 17th centuries. Barbara Strozzi is a “official“ composer of an era of baroque.
Barbara Strozzi (on August 6, 1619 - on November 11, 1677) was born in Venice and was an illegitimate child. However, it, probably, was the normal phenomenon: and all her 4 children were illegitimate and her father too. Found a way out simply: the father became reception, adopting illegitimate children. And Barbara was adopted by the father who brought up her, gave the surname, education - and then and made the only heir.
Barbara wrote generally vocal music, published personal collections of the madrigals and cantatas. It is very beautiful music which and now with pleasure is executed. Barbara Strozzi`s portrait of the famous Italian painter Bernardo Strozzi - but it, perhaps, just the namesake is stored in the German Dresden.
Women of the age of Enlightenment also loved music. Many composed. Vocal and tool works of these ladies remained though biographic data are poor. In Vienna Marianna Martinez wrote sonatas for a harpsichord. And also sometimes played 4 hands with Mozart. In St. Petersburg princesses Naryshkina, Kurakina and Dolgorukova composed. And Maria Voinovna Zubova (the daughter vice-the admiral V. Ya. Rimsky-Korsakov) wrote then the well-known song “I to the Desert Move Away from Beautiful Local Places“.
Women of an era of romanticism is a special subject. It is enough to remember Klara Schuman. American Amy Bich deserves separate conversation. As well as Valentina Serova - the Russia`s first professional in the sphere of the composition of music and mother of the great artist Valentin Serov.
The 20th century - an era of the full admission of women in an inner sanctum of man`s activity, including - intellectual. For someone still offensive fact is that the woman writes music - not some special “female“, but universal. That is just music. And now there is a lot of such women - you will not list all names.
In 2006 Galina Ustvolskaya - the composer who is well known in other countries, but not in the homeland died. In Kiev there lives Victoria Polevaya, in Germany - Sofia Gubaidulina, in England - Elena Firsova, in the USA - Lera Auerbach.
Who the woman - a vessel of a sin or a well of virtues? May she make something, remaining the wife and mother, or “is not given“? Dispute is old, but amazing business: and now it is possible to face similar idle talks. It is good that discordant it is not obligatory to be removed to the monastery any more.