Fulgurit. How to find the stone which is given rise by a lightning?
are Very simple. In time change footcloths! Fulgurita (fulgur - a lightning) are the wrong tubules which are formed from alloyage of electrowire rock owing to a lightning stroke. The lightning represents the natural spark category with a temperature up to 30000 K and current from several units to 200 kA .
Fulguritami name sometimes as well the oplavlennost of solid rocks, marble, lavas formed by a lightning stroke. Such oplavlennost in a large number meet at tops of some mountains.
Possibly, the palm in a solution of an origin of fulgurit belongs to Englishman Viteringu. It in 1790 found fulgurit in sand under the tree damaged by a lightning. The andesite forming top of Small Ararat is penetrated by fulgurita in the form of the green glassy courses why he also received the name of a fulguritovy andesite. The largest of the found fulgurit “Florida“ represents two branches of a glassy body which are stretched from the place of blow on 5,2 and 4,9 meters. In 1947 this fulgurit was found after a short thunder-storm on a stone pavement of Detroit.
Lightnings are the frequent phenomenon in a peplovy cloud at eruption of volcanoes. As a result of their blow in rock fulgurita are also formed. Finds of fulgurit in massive rocks are rare. I will tell about a casual and only find of a fulgurit in the world on basalt.
Described fulgurit it is found by us at the rocky exits of basalt at the height about 1000 meters above sea level on a northern volcano`s slope Kronotsky Volcano (Kamchatka). This find of a fulgurit in basalts, the most widespread effusive breeds of Earth, only. Fulgurit formed on a surface of the rock of a drop of black brilliant glass with a diameter up to 6 of mm . Deep into breeds fulguritovy glass is tracked to 20 cm in the form of hollow tubules and branchy zones with a diameter of 3 - 4 of mm .
In 1983 I (fizikokhimik), Alexey Igorevich Tsyurupa (the geologist - the Encyclopaedist) and Boris Lunev (geophysicist) stopped for rest during “field“ works. Seius Peredykh occurred on a sopochka about the Kronotsky volcano. It is necessary to tell that to wander about slopes of volcanoes - occupation quite tiresome. And therefore I, having attached in a glade, dried footcloths and gumboots as legs at “polevik“ are an and autonomous security system, and one of the main working tools. They should be cared and cherished, like darling in the first marriage night.
A. I. Tsyurupa was guided by districts on the volcanoes which are seen in the distance, and the compass at him got up miracles. At the earth showed one direction, and at half a meter height - another. Sopochka was strongly magnetic. Borya Lunev, being a person inquisitive, began to creep on a rocky ledge, sniffing up something. At last, speaks: “Alexey Igorevich, here some smolka flowed out from breed“, - indicating a five-millimetric droplet of black substance. Tsyurupa a kite rushed to it, pokovyryal a knife and pronounced the magic word “ fulgurit “.
We with Boris by youth and ignorance, naturally, did not know that fulgur in Latin “lightning“. And Tsyurupa knew. Besides, he knew that volcanists always look for fulgurita at volcanoes as during eruption peplovy clouds are constantly penetrated by lightnings. We were lucky. Further - a trick.
As I am a specialist in nondestructive methods of the analysis of solid bodies then the plan of experiment (the x-ray phase analysis, messbauerovsky spectroscopy, a microprobe and an electronic microscope) was drawn up. I took a droplet half for researches.
In 1,5 years our article on favorable representation of the academician Yu. A. Kosygin went to the “Reports of Academy of Sciences of the USSR“ magazine where and in 8 months it was published. Here success components: case, curiosity, three different expert, existence of available methods of researches and... the dried footcloths .