What means the term “transfer“ in psychology?
In psychology under transfer are accepted movement of feelings from real object (to which they also were initially addressed) on object - the deputy. As a sample emotionally significant person, usually from the past, the relation to which we transfer to people with whom we interact now, acts.
Pay attention! Transfer is not a discharge of the emotions (for example, aggressions) on object - the deputy. At aggression “skidyvaniye“ we discharge tension on more person of no character. At the same time we understand that not it is the reason of our discomfort and that we “simply“ break on it the rage intended to another. All heard about a method of psychological unloading, popular in Japan: beating of the doll representing the chief. This is also aggression dumping. As represent on the place of a doll of the real person, nevertheless it is necessary to realize that it is only a dummy.
At transfer movement of feelings takes place too, but we do not realize this movement and we react to other person as if it is a certain personality from our past. The significant figure - usually from the childhood undertakes “sample“. Naturally, most often it is the figures, most important for the child, - parents. The relation to a significant figure from the childhood most often is also transferred in further life to “suitable“ object which does not know about the role ordered it. And both positive, and negative feelings can be transferred to future relations - it is probable, the main criterion is their subjective importance.
Well the saying “Illustrates such situation having burned on milk, on water blows“. More precisely, not just “blows“, and sees in any liquid “hot milk“. In the same way the person transfers feelings from the significant relations which were in the past to the new relations. For example, the son of the supersponsoring mother with high probability will begin to look for the woman capable to play a similar role in his life. Moreover, he “will try“ to see required authoritative lines and in the woman, their not having. Will see and will become to interact with it, proceeding rather from these attributed qualities, than from really it inherent.
How transfer is shown? First of all, periodic reproduction of the same situation in the relations. The elementary example: the woman convinced, that “all men of the swine“. And it is valid, over and over again its relations collapse. A certain specific man who really corresponded to definition “swine“ could serve as “sample“.
And it is possible, roots of a situation disappear in the childhood, in the relations with parents. It is more important for us that this process happens unconsciously. We do not understand that we perceive not real behavior of other person, and our own imaginations attributed to it. Though these imaginations have no relation neither to an actual situation, nor to this person. Our mentality is inert and lazy, to apply a ready template to a new situation to it much more simply, than to penetrate into it and to build up the relationship from scratch. Action on a template demands much smaller expenses of energy, and for subconsciousness there is no present and the past. Here we also try to reproduce those in the new relations, long ago consigned to the past.
And it is fine if as a result, for example, the man selects to himself the wife for a sample of mother or the authoritative chief similar to the father. Then relations at least complementary and in own way harmonious. It is worse if “feelings from the past“ are just attributed to the people included in an actual situation who do not suspect that they are perceived through a prism of a certain significant figure from the remote past.
We will tell, the wife tries to reproduce the situation which was once existing in the relations with the father in the relations with the husband. If the husband joins in this “game“, in their relations at least there will be no dissonance. If he does not agree to follow a role which to it is intended, in the relations naturally there is a dissonance. The wife reacts not to the valid behavior of the husband, and to own representations, to “an image from the past“. This image can not coincide with an actual situation at all, and then partners, in fact, live in the different worlds.
Transfer - extremely powerful factor in relationship. Not for nothing in psychoanalysis it is one of the main objects of studying. The client begins to build up the relationship with the psychologist on a sample, habitual for himself, transferring to the psychologist of emotion, addressed to someone from the past. The relations developing thus can be studied already in the present, allowing to show to the client of feature of his perception and to realize the hidden feelings, giving the chance to reconstruct the past which left so long mark in soul.
Not everyone, the impact which exerted on us in the childhood, we can remember. But significant events, the relations, emotions over and over again are reproduced in the present. And here they can be realized, and then (if necessary) to reach the reasons. And it is possible, to resolve that old problem. And together with it also the emotional block demanding to reproduce over and over again not resolved situation will leave.