Rus Articles Journal

Who paid Lenina?

As if without its intervention developed events of World War I, Lenin as “the leader of the world proletariat“ would take place and whether, in general, there was a revolution in Russia which destroyed almost completely unique civilization? It was not collective madness of the people. External forces, the pushing destructive processes in the country, went those who remained behind the scenes. Parvus can quite be compared to the director here - the director.

Israel Lazarevich Gelfand, such is a real name of Alexander Parvus, was born on September 8, 1867 in the town of Berezino of the Minsk province. After the endured disorder the family moved to Odessa. His father was a port loader, however it did not prevent the son to end a gymnasium successfully. There he joined reading revolutionary literature and defined for himself the life purpose: to exempt Russia from tsarism or to become the rich. In 19 years the young man went to Zurich where he got acquainted with members of Work Release group - G. V. Plekhanov, P. B. Axelrod and Vera Zasulich. Under their influence he also became a Marxist.

In 1887 the young man entered University of Basel upon termination of which he received degree of the doctor of philosophy. He did not begin to come back to Russia, and moved to Germany where, without breaking off the relations with Russians he sotsiat - democrats, entered the German sotsiat - democratic party and K. Tsetkin, R. Luxemburg was very kindly accepted by her heads K. Kautsky. By the way, for its appearance of Kautsky Doctor Slon nicknamed it. Parvus writes many articles. He is a good journalist. Young Russian Marxists become engrossed in reading of its publications, including also Vladimir Ulyanov who, being in a Siberian exile, asks mother to send him all copies of works of Parvus. “Its articles and books about the world market and agrarian crisis, about general strike, about the German opportunism represent excellent works which pamfdetny form is perfectly combined with scientific character of contents … Parvus an edge raised a question of a social revolution … The gain of the power the proletariat stopped being shapeless “ultimate goal“ and became a practical problem of our time“. So spoke of works Parvusa L. B. Trotsky which got acquainted with it in 1904 and was literally “bewitched“ by parvussky idea of “permanent revolution“. By this time Parvus was already a member of RSDRP, having adjoined fraction of Mensheviks.

Parvus and Lenin`s personal acquaintance happened earlier, in 1901 in Munich where on Alexander`s apartment the printing house issuing the Iskra newspaper was arranged. Here passed also meetings of revolutionaries.

From the beginning of revolution of 1905-1907 Parvus arrived to St. Petersburg and together with Trotsky was a part of executive committee of Council of working deputies. Together they bought the small periodical - “The Russian newspaper“, and quickly brought its circulation to 100 thousand copies. After arrest of heads of Council of Khrustalyov and Trotsky Parvus headed illegal Council, but was soon arrested and after short stay in “Crosses“ is sent into three-year exile to Turukhansk. But there it did not get. Having given to drink at a stage of escorts, Parvus ran, already having at himself the false passport, appearances and money. More it did not return to Russia. Surprising there was this revolutionary: obsessed with dream to grow rich and even not hiding it. Many then noted his passion to money and illegibility in means for their getting. Here on it the “pure“ revolutionary, the theorist and the practician, ended. Also there was an adventurer, quite dishonest. A number of scandals then was connected with his name: two wives with children thrown without means of support, assignment and waste on the mistress of 130 thousand brands which had to go to party funds. It was the income from copyright of Maxim Gorky entrusted it. According to the decision of “party court“ for this act to Parvus it was forbidden to participate in Russian and German sotsiat - the democratic movement. After that it disappeared from Germany and in 1910 “came up“ in Constantinople.

In Turkey Parvus earned the first millions, having become the adviser in the government “mladoturok“ and the successful businessman - provision dealer for the Turkish army and the representative of the largest dealer in Basil Zakharov`s weapon and Krupp`s concern. Sarajevo shots of 1914 for Parvus sounded as an alarm. From the beginning of World War I there came its hour of triumph. Having instantly assessed a situation, he understood, than the entry of Turkey in war on side of Germany will come to an end for Russia: Turkey closes passages; Russia which is cut off from allies suffers a defeat; and there and desired revolution. And he managed to force two deadly enemies, Bulgaria and Turkey, to oppose Russia from the South. Parvus unexpectedly appeared among sotsiat - democrats, blinding them gloss of diamond cuff links and gold rings. Now he began to act as the defender of progressive mission of the German militarism which is actually playing into the hands world socialism and as the ardent opponent of the Russian tsarism - the old enemy of socialism. In need of defeat of Russia both Parvus, and Lenin are completely solidary.
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Having arrived to Berlin, Parvus in March, 1915 offered Germans extensive (on 20 pages) the plan of destruction of Russia “by coming to power of extremely left extremists“. A plan essence the is as follows: organization under anti-war slogans of the all-Russian strike at small-arms factories and the railroads; explosions of railway bridges; the organization of revolts and strikes in regions with political slogans; arsons on oil fields; propaganda among working leading branches and in seaports; instigation of the anti-Russian moods in Ukraine, in Finland and in the Caucasus; organization of escapes of political prisoners from Siberia; support of the slogan RSDRP about overthrow of the government and conclusion of peace; propaganda against tsarism. The scheme of this propaganda is simple: the tsar - responsible for war, the empress - the German, so, the spy, the successor is incurably sick, so, the dynasty is doomed. All this had to lead to chaos and renunciation of the tsar. And then Russia which is not adapted to live in democracy conditions, will fail. Also there was a person who, according to Parvus, could carry out it, - Lenin obsessed with mania of the power and world supremacy ready for any means for the sake of achievement of the purpose.

Across Parvus, revolution in Russia is, first of all, business, and the initial capital is for this purpose necessary. He suggested Germans to allocate 5 million brands under the program. Those provided two from which one Parvus right there transfers to the accounts in Copenhagen where he has the whole commercial empire which is engaged in trade operations. It puts the most part from the income in creation of mass media worldwide. They had to incite the world and the population of Russia against the imperial mode.

So, Lenin and his Bolsheviks is necessary. In May, 1916 at the Zurich small restaurant their meeting took place. “I stated the point of view on socially - revolutionary consequences of war, - Parvus noted then, - and paid attention that … revolution at that time was possible only in Russia …“ But Lenin treated Parvus`s proposals very carefully. He was already disappointed in prospects of revolutionary seizure of power in Russia by this time. However soon through intermediaries they agreed. The truth Parvus overestimated readiness and ability of the Russian revolutionaries to lift masses that very raised the price of his plan of destruction of Russia. He counted that there will be enough 5-10 million brands, but the sum eventually grew to 100 million.

After a victory in Russia of February revolution Parvus organized Lenin Drive through the territory of Germany to Russia, having received for this purpose new 5 million. He bought tickets for the warranty train from Zurich. At the same time Parvus very much wanted that the merit of seizure of power in Russia was attributed to it for what tried to organize in Germany Lenin`s meeting with himself. Here communication between them would be looked through at once. But Lenin showed care and refused a meeting. With Lenin then there left several tens revolutionaries, and then some more trains were sent. In the summer of 1917 Bolsheviks tried to take the power, but they were comprehended by failure. Then materials about Lenin`s communications with Germans for the first time were published in newspapers, and every time was mentioned Parvus. And this neighbourhood was not casual.

Parvus first met October revolution of 1917 with delight. Dreams came true! It even managed “to untwist“ under this event Germans on 40 million brands! This money had to go for creation in Russia of the pro-German newspaper empire which would be engaged in the corresponding processing of the Russian population. But already soon it began to disturb as Germans as had the view of a form of conducting peace talks with Bolsheviks, and to Bolsheviks as counted (and it is vain!) that Lenin will give it a portfolio in the government. But Parvus, appears, knew a little the person for whom prepared a role only of the tyrant. It gave it the initial capital for occupation of the country, now in Lenin`s hands there was infinite richness of Russia and the plan of world revolution - and Parvus did not become necessary. The Moor made the business!

Since 1918 Parvus became the furious critic of Lenin, having brought down on the Bolshevist power of mass media. But was already late. After November revolution in Germany and falling of the kayzerovsky empire Parvus moved to Switzerland. But when its role in events of 1914-1917 began to emerge, Swisses suggested it to leave the country. He moved again to Germany where he lived in solitude on a big country house near Berlin, still going in for journalism. Alexander Parvus died on December 12, 1924. His death did not cause any sympathetic comments. For one he was a revolutionary and the adventurer, for others - the traitor. For Russia Parvus with the ability to destroy was the evil genius and a damnation.