How to help the poor rich? The kind person from Florence of
to go on the city overflowed with culture monuments - punishment for the tourist. For example, for the second day of stay in Florence you Santa - Mary and Santa - Croce begins to feel sick a little from infinite monuments of Renaissance, various.
You begin to look at each ancient house with suspicion: and well as in this house Dante spent the night? You will not pay attention to it now, and later will be whipping the cat. It is better to photograph just in case! The benefit, now cameras electronic, photos in themselves contain a huge number. As we know, the Japanese tourists differ in similar madness.
I hope that my readers do not treat those sumasshedshenky. If they will get on streets of beautiful Florence, of course, will remember Kozma Prutkov`s aphorism impossibility to embrace immensity. Also will move on ancient quarters slowly, equally deriving pleasure and from a srednevekovost of streets, and from unsurpassed Italian ice cream, and even from purchases of some lovely trifles. On my supervision in Florence various products from skin quite cheap are on sale.
And, of course, they on the travel will not pay attention to chapel of Saint Martin even if will pass near it. Imperceptible this chapel is on the small square formed by crossing of streets of Magadzini (via de` Magazzini) and Dante Alighieri (via Dante Alighieri). The name of the last street is not casual. Absolutely nearby there is Dante`s house where it is worth coming if there is half an hour of time.
Saint Martin`s chapel was constructed in 10 - m a century and after was reconstructed more than once. According to historians, in due time two most dear families of this quarter, Alighieri and Donati were trustees of a chapel. Exactly here children of these families, Dante and Gemma became engaged.
Saint Martin of Tour (316 or 317 - 397) to whom the chapel - the most esteemed among Catholic Saints is devoted. It - one of the first Christian Saints proclaimed that not for martyr death, and for just, ascetic, life and the organization of monasteries in Gallia.
And before becoming the monk, there was he the knight and met on the road of the beggar. For the lack of money Martin cut off a half from the magnificent raincoat and gave to poor. This feat of Saint Martin was most loved by the subsequent generations of artists and sculptors. Therefore there is a lot of pictures and sculptures representing Martin, the cutting-off half-raincoat for the beggar across all France and Germany. (Saint Martin is registered both among patrons of France, and among heavenly defenders of Germany).
The most known picture belongs to a brush Ale - Greco (1541-1614) . In the Florentine chapel of Saint Martin it is possible to see the frescos representing life of the Saint too. And on altar, east, a wall - donation to the beggar of a half of a raincoat as the main event. Very lovely, but in Florence overflowed with art treasures does not impress.
Perhaps, Saint Martin`s chapel would not cost even a mention, be not connected with it an interesting story of a community of Buonomini (Buonomini di San Martino) which I and wanted to tell. This community was founded in 1441 by the bishop of that time of Florence Antonino Pyerozzi (Antonino Pierozzi) (1389-1459) who later is also canonized under a name of the Saint Antonina Florentiyskogo. On the street, over an entrance his portrait, and in a chapel, is placed with east wall - a bust.
Antonino Pyerozzi was born in a family of the notary, and it seemed to much, was born already ready to God`s service. Unlike other kids did not run and did not play pranks, and it was inclined to study and to thoughts. Antonino was low and cachectic, however possessed mind live and active. Having become the prior of the Dominican monastery of Saint Mark in Florence, it took under protection of the famous artist Fra Andzheliko, the monk too - the Dominican. When in 1448 in Florence epidemic of plague burst, Antonino Pyerozzi not only prayed for disposal of a misfortune, but mobilized doctors to make illness medicine. Did not do also without raincoat. One of miracles, shown by future Saint: after it covered the freezing blind beggar with the raincoat, the poor creature not only got warm, but also began to see clearly.
Having become the bishop, Antonino did not hesitate to interfere with city life and to resist to the mighty master Cosimo Medici (to Cosimo de` Medici) (1389-1464) , to the founder of the well-known dynasty of masters of Florence.
Cosimo Medici came to the power as “the father of the fatherland“ and took great pain to support the image of “the kind governor“. Being extremely rich, he did not stint neither bread, nor shows for the simple people. On the other hand, it was mercy to the enemies and rivals. It is rather mercy, of course. Without having an opportunity to eliminate political opponents physically, it all - navsy ruined them, assessing with excessive taxes. Economic repressions against rich citizens did not cause such indignation of “the democratic public“ what executions or “casual“ murders could cause.
Meanwhile the ruined Florentine oligarchs got into breath-taking situation. They were deprived by riches and discharged of grain posts. Than actually doomed to pathetic vegetation as to go in for low craft or business they could not or did not want, including those occupations by humiliating. Such people in Florence 15 - go was many century. The whole layer of so-called “bashful poor people“ (poveri vergognosi) was formed. As one my acquaintance was neatly expressed, nothing remained to them as “quietly to cry on corners with hunger and humiliation“.
Here - that to the aid of these to “the poor rich“ the bishop Antonino Pyerozzi also came. On its initiative Saint Martin`s community, “Buonomini“ was organized. The community was proved in Saint Martin`s chapel.
In translation from Italian of “buonomina“ means “kind people“. Both the name of a community, and its placement indicated that it will do charity work. Twelve people, on two representatives from each of 6 urban areas entered a community of “buonomina“. If to trust Dm. To Merezhkovsky (“The revived Leonardo da Vinci`s gods“), at the time of Leonardo da Vinci one of 12 buonomina was certain messer Dzhiokondo whose portrait of the wife, Mona Lisa, became world famous thanks to the same Leonardo.
“Kind people“ raised money for the aid to prostrate political opponents of Medici and anonymously distributed them among “the victims of the mode“. Anonymity did not humiliate the advantage of former “noblenesses“. The invention of the bishop was supported by many including representatives of notable city families. If in Society money came to an end, over an entrance to Saint Martin`s chapel lit a special icon lamp, as if giving a signal to Florentines to begin to show charity. And it must be said, the cash desk of a community was not empty.
“Bashful poor people“ of Florence remained in the past. The community of kind Florentines exists and until now. It, as before, is in Saint Martin`s chapel, as before, does charity work, and its cash desk, as well as five and a half centuries ago, is not empty.