Chemistry - it is bad?
Occur ordinary opinion that chemistry - it is bad (all this “chemistry“!) . Superfluous to that confirmation - article in “ShZh“ “What is food of death?“. However let`s address the facts.
On a department of chemistry of the Leningrad university we passed even fourteen himiya. And it was difficult.
In the monograph “Sketches of the Nonequilibrium World“ I, already from height of doctor`s level, saw them forty . And it was surprising.
In the professorial work “The chemistry synopsis“ counted more of seventy . Professionals - be touched, inquisitive - reflect, and inhabitants - restrain the faultfinding.
“ I Will announce all list “, though I risk to be accused of tediousness.
Analytical, agro - astro - bioinorganic, bioorganic, bio - geo - a hydra - gisto - immuno - quantum, colloidal, cosmetic, Cosmo - krio - a crystal - laser, the woods - mag - medical, mekhano - microwave, nano - neuro - inorganic, organic, petro - organic geo - a stalemate - petro - pegnio - food, plasma - applied, radio - radiation, drowsily - spin, a stereo - structural, judicial, supramolekulyarny, thermo - technical, a top - coal - farmako - femto - physical, physical organic, phyto - a photo - cyto - electro - nuclear chemistry. Galurgiya, metallurgy, petrurgiya, organic synthesis, chemical technology, chemical physics, chemical arms, kinetics and catalysis. Besides, chemistry of elements, natural connections, high energiya, high-molecular connections, silicates, solid body, elementoorganichesky connections.
You, even without university, could get to Soviet period “on chemistry“ - so in the people forced labor which punished for small crimes were called. So, and from prison do not renounce a bag, and chemistry - especially.
Now about “food of death“ and, in general, about a daily bread.
T. R. Malthus (1766-1834), the English priest - the economist of the 19th century, formulated the nadystorichesky law according to which growth of the population happens in a geometrical progression, and growth of a subsistence - only in arithmetic. From this Malthus formulated a consequence: an absolute overpopulation and the decreasing fertility of soils. The problem of extinction of mankind for hunger was designated. This approach received the name a maltuzianstvo . Really, soils without nitrogen fertilizers were exhausted.
In what business? Fixing of nitrogen and nitric cycle.
The term “nitrogen fixing“ means process of binding of atmospheric nitrogen. In the nature it can occur in two ways: or bean plants, for example peas, a clover and soy, accumulate on the roots klubenk in which the bacteria fixing nitrogen turn it into nitrates, or there is an oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen oxygen in the conditions of a lightning discharge. Svante Arrhenius considered that about 400 million tons of nitrogen annually are in such a way fixed. In the atmosphere nitrogen oxides connect to rain water, forming nitric and nitrogenous acids. Besides, it is established that with a rain and snow on each hectare of the earth about 6700 grams of nitrogen of the molniyevy nature get; reaching the soil, they turn into nitrites and nitrates.
Plants use nitrates for formation of vegetable albumens. Animals, eating these plants, acquire albumens of plants and turn them into animal protein. After death of animals and plants there is their decomposition, nitric connections turn into ammonia. Ammonia is used in two ways: the bacteria which are not forming nitrates destroy it to elements, emitting nitrogen and hydrogen, and other bacteria form of it nitrites which other bacteria are oxidized to nitrates. Thus, there is a circulation of nitrogen in the nature, or a nitric cycle. But it is not enough for a pro-forage of today`s population of the planet (7 billion people).
“harmful“ chemists learned to receive the connected nitrogen by ammonia synthesis. The main industrial method of receiving ammonia is its catalytic synthesis from atmospheric nitrogen and hydrogen at high temperature (500 degrees Celsius) and pressure (200 atm.) the catalyst - oxide of iron and aluminum.
Hydrogen for this synthesis is received thermal cracking of hydrocarbons, effect of vapors of water on coal or iron, decomposition of alcohols vapors of water or electrolysis of water. On synthesis of ammonia the set of the patents differing in conditions of carrying out process (temperature, pressure, the catalyst) is taken out. There is a way of industrial receiving at thermal distillation of coal. Names F are connected with technological development of synthesis of ammonia. Haber and K. Bosch.
Fritz Haber, the German chemist awarded in 1918 the Nobel Prize for ammonia synthesis opening. In 1904-1905, investigating an ammonia equilibrium state, showed a possibility of its synthesis, in 1910-1915 practically carried out catalytic synthesis of ammonia that became the major event in the field of chemical technology. This work allowed to resolve a problem of fixing of the connected nitrogen and gave a way of receiving nitrogen fertilizers. Besides, need for export of saltpeter which Germany imported from Chile disappeared.
The production technology of ammonia developed by the German scientist very strongly differed from other productions of that time. Here the principle of the closed cycle with continuously operating equipment and utilization of energy was for the first time applied. Final development of technology of synthesis of ammonia was finished by the colleague and Haber`s friend Karl Bosch who in 1931 was also conferred the Nobel Prize - for development of methods of chemical synthesis with high pressures.
Thus, dear readers, in your body as a part of proteins, and so forth about 85% of atoms of nitrogen are connected by DNA in the synthetic way in Haber`s cycle - Bosch. So eat on health, “ synthetic you mine “!