Kosherno - it is tasty?
One my companion, the fan of a various extreme, opened the law of the nature which he called “Miklukho`s law - Maclay“. This law is formulated so: “In the unfamiliar place you eat what is eaten by locals“. The friend claims that this law is as firm as Archimedes`s law or the rule of a gimlet.
What only unusual food it did not try in the distant countries! Sometimes it was necessary to overcome the nausea rising to a throat, but Miklukho`s law - Maclay never brought it. The companion still does not complain of health.
So, having visited Israel, one of features of the country, kashrut, it accepted without surprise, and even with some satisfaction. And as “walks“ on the most exotic edges made of it the spontaneous ethnographer and the anthropologist (therefore - that and the law - Miklukho - Maclay!) he even tried on - scientific to explain some features of the Jewish cuisine.
Food addictions, so and bans, exist at all people of the world. Kashrut is a system of the permissions and bans determined by the Jewish religion. Bans not only food. However conversation on kashrut, as a rule, arises around food.
The main food ban at Jews as well as their neighbors - Arabs have a ban on the use of pork. The ban to that can find several explanations. One of them, the most widespread: pork easily is surprised small worms - trikhinella. Having eaten such meat, the person infects himself with parasites of whom then it is very difficult to get rid. Other explanation: pork fat in hot climate is acquired by an organism worse, than, for example, mutton. Besides such assimilation requires a lot of water. My friend - the thrill-seeker adhered to this reason.
Anthropologists offer the explanation: the wild boar was a totemic animal at the shepherds wandering on the desert, the general ancestors of Jews and Arabs. The patron of the tribe, the embodiment of spirit of the died ancestors. It is natural that the totemic animal was not killed and in food did not use.
Among gods of a Middle Eastern pantheon the wild boar symbolized the god Tammuz who is periodically dying and reviving. Tammuz`s death fell on day of a winter solstice at the end of December, and its revival was noted in day of the vernal equinox. This god was remembered in chapter 1 “By Mastera and Margarita“ highly educated and unfortunate Mikhail Aleksandrovich Berlioz.
Actually all these explanations very disputable, and to the person religious - even excessive. Time God told, it is necessary to carry out, but not to explain.
The ban on the use of pork both at Jews, and at Muslims is understood very widely. For example, it is impossible to use products from a pigskin. Thanks to this circumstance cunning Venetians in 828 took out from Alexandria relics of the patron of the city, Saint Mark. They carried by a body of this old Jew on the ship in a basket, having covered it from above with pork hulks and skins. It is natural that customs officers are all devout Muslims - even did not touch by a finger godless freight.
Signs on which meat of animals can or it cannot be eaten are listed in the Scripture. The kosher animal has to be ruminant and artiodactyl . Thus, beef, mutton and a goat`s meat can be eaten. From wild animals deer, elks, mountain goats and even giraffes are kosher. And here camels and rabbits with hares Jews are will not be - ruminant they, but not artiodactyl. Notorious pig, on the contrary, artiodactyl, but not ruminant.
Meat of birds of prey nekosherno. It can be explained too. For example the fact that they eat drop. But - I will repeat once again - for the religious person of an explanation no role is played. The principle works: it is told by God - we execute. Problems with consumption of correctly destroyed hens, quails, ducks, geese and pigeons are not present.
One more very important requirement of kashrut was just mentioned. Except that the killed animals have to be absolutely healthy, them follows also is correct to hammer . “Correctly“ means that parting with life has to happen to the minimum tortures. Usually animal cut with the sharpest knife arteries, and it very quickly bleeds to death, as if fills up. The kosher face of an animal demands big ability, and in the Jewish communities specially trained people - shokheta are engaged in it.
Owing to the strict rules shown to the correct face of animals, the European medieval valiant entertainments like hunting or bullfight, did not get accustomed among Jews. And from the point of view of devout Muslims, meat of the animals killed in such wild way is also not suitable in food. By the way, the blood use is forbidden under any kind too. Any blood sausage! And any beefsteak with blood! Meat of animals is carefully exsanguinated. According to some gourmets, from it it becomes less tasty.
As for fishes, is it is possible only those that have scales and fins. Therefore nekosherna shark, ugr, sturgeon. By the way, for the last reason black, sturgeon, caviar in Israel can be bought only in special “not kosher“ shops. Red caviar is sold and given everywhere.
Other sea inhabitants though are tasty, but absolutely nekosherna. For the Jewish cuisine there are no crayfish, crabs, oysters, squids and other cuttlefishes. However, kosher sushi - the objective reality given us in very good flavoring feelings.
And here all insects are inedible (except a locust). The only not kosher insect whose product is allowed for consumption - bees.
There is in the Jewish cuisine one more feature which simple people take for granted, and scientists and theologians try by the methods to explain inexplicable. Mixture of dairy and meat products is forbidden . Buterbrodik with oil and a sausage - for Jews the same culinary nonsense as beef in creamy sauce. Division of dishes on meat and dairy - very strict. Those who were in the Israeli hotels, probably, remember that breakfasts there always dairy, and lunches and dinners - meat. Between reception of dairy and meat dishes has to pass about an hour.
Due to the separate reception of meat and dairy dishes accepted at Jews long since there was a problem with production of firm cheeses. Milk is traditional for firm cheeses of a skvashivala by means of the abomasal enzyme received from a stomach of cows or calfs. Kashrut forbids such mixture of dairy and meat products. Therefore, any cheeses? Anything similar! Now in Israel make many cheeses, using for milk souring artificially made enzyme rennin. However, gurmanstvuyushchy snobs (or snobstvuyushchy gourmets?) surely declare that to equal these cheeses with the French it is useless.
There are products not meat and not dairy - fruit, for example. They are called to “parva“. Such food can be eaten when necessary and without bans.
Muslims of strict division of dairy and meat dishes do not adhere. But they have other ban - on alcohol. At Jews wine is esteemed. Approach of Saturday or holidays note among other things and a glass of wine over which they say special blessing. By the way, wine has to be kosher too.
Among the Jewish food bans it is worth mentioning still a week ban on barmy bread on a spring holiday Pesakh.
And now, having told in brief about rules of kashrut which Jews follow for a long time, we will notice that the question which is taken out in article heading is incorrect. Introduction of restrictions for the use of these or those products does not influence taste of the prepared dishes. The Israeli cuisine which is part of kitchen Mediterranean without any doubt, is plentiful and tasty. It is a lot of vegetables, fruit and spices. Hummus (“the Turkish peas“), the recognized favourite of Middle Eastern kitchen is widely used.
Many of the “Russian“ Jews repatriated to Israel grieve for pork and for fat. This melancholy is easily dispersed by tasty and various kosher meat dishes. And still hot climate and other drinking mode. To Deryabnut a glass of vodka and to have a snack on a salets in cold frosty day - great pleasure. But on a local heat and to think of it precisely. There`s nothing to be done, Miklukho`s law - Maclay as it was told, is firm! To break it - is more expensive to itself.
Thus, the message on a koshernost or nekoshernost of an institution of public catering will tell nothing about whether tasty here will feed. Most likely, this notice on to what will not begin to treat here.