Whether A.S. Pushkin a homosexual was?
To Don - the Zhuansky list made by A.S. Pushkin of 113 female names are one, designated NN that induced tens of researchers to puzzle for more than 100 years over this mysterious designation, trying to define which of women disappears under this secret designation.
A can be it not the woman, but the man? whether
Could be A.S. Pushkin the homosexual? why is also not present
A if to remember the description of his childhood, its own comments on him, his early hobbies and his stormy sexual life bringing it and his friends problems of venereal diseases (*1, str291 - 292). One of epigrams, it is unknown to whom addressed, sounded so:
The epigram (1821)
Be treated - or to be to you Panglos,
You are the victim of harmful beauty -
I - the brother, you will be with a nose, you will be
When without nose.
From M. A memoirs. Korf: “Pushkin presented type of the dirtiest debauchery“ to
Remember? Not the so flatter characteristic is given to Pushkin and in the preface to P. K. Guber`s work (*2) ru/Pushkin/index. htm:
“In Lyceum it surpassed all by sensuality, and later, in light, indulged libertinism of all childbirth, spending days and nights in a continuous chain of bacchanalias and orgies. Has to marvel, as well as health, and talent stood him such way of life to which also frequent mean diseases were naturally interfaced, reducing it is frequent on the edge of the grave. Pushkin was not created neither for light, nor for public duties, nor even, I think, for the highest love or true friendship …“ it is not difficult for
to assume that in such conditions the subject of homosexuality arises by itself as a way to reduce danger of infection with venereal diseases, communicating with similar.
This subject became an object of research of Vladimir Kirsanov in his work (*3): “Blue“ environment of Alexander Pushkin“. mitin. com/dj01/kirsanov. shtml
These researches led it to a conclusion:
“Is considered that the poet Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was absolutely indifferent to homosexuality. From the point of view of possible homosexual communications of Pushkin, it quite right.
on the other hand, in Pushkin`s environment was many gays.
the Subject Pushkin and homosexuals has something in common with a subject Pushkin and the Arzamas brotherhood. “Arzamas“ - not that literary society, not informal, as if now told, the literary circle formed in 1815 by the former lyceum students as opposed to semi-official “Colloquy of lovers of the Russian word“. Residents of Arzamas gathered for the noisy meetings which were coming to an end with indispensable wine parties... And so - among residents of Arzamas and in a circle close to them nearly a half was noticed in homosexual communications, and many of them, certainly, were homosexuals. This is F. F. Vigel, S. S. Uvarov, K. N. Batyushkov, S. P. Zhikharev and the honorary member societies I. I. Dmitriyev. Also the poet F. I. Glinka who is also noticed by contemporaries in communications with men is close to residents of Arzamas. By the way, when “Arzamas“ broke up into two camps - on friends - servilist (F. F. Vigel, S. S. Uvarov, D. N. Bludov) and friends - liberals (A.S. Pushkin, V. I. Zhukovsky, P. A. Vyazemsky), - that turned out that they were as if divided into a wing “blue“ and a wing of “heteros“... And the nicknames at most of “residents of Arzamas“ which are thought up, most likely, according to the name of ballads of Zhukovsky strange some...
of Fornications - “Cassandra“, Uvarov - “Old woman“, Zhukovsky - “Svetlana“, but Pushkin - “Cricket“, Vyazma - “Asmodey“ … So, the blue environment of Pushkin did not cause in it disgust from - for vicious sexual orientation of his certain members. Especially, it does not exclude acquisition of such experience in quality of the initiator or the victim or as that and another, in view of his genetic sexuality, sufferings from venereal diseases from casual communications, a dissatisfaction with the growth) “I am sure that Pushkin very much becomes angry for the small growth“ - from the letter Vyazma to the wife of May 16, 1930) and misogyny. Its this line is shown also in correspondence with friends. In the letter to Vyazma he writes: Whether “The truth that Boratynsky marries? I am afraid for his mind. Lawful... (instead of the abusive word we will put the graceful medical term - a vagina. - E. Ch.) - sort of a warm hat with earflaps. The head all goes to it. You, maybe, exception. But also here I am sure that you would be much cleverer if you 10 more are years single. Marriage holostit soul“ (*4). the Same relation he preaches
also in the poem “Eugene Onegin“, believing that Lensky`s death on duel is more preferable than married life:
In the village is happy and is horned
would Wear a quilted dressing gown;
would Learn life actually,
in forty years would have Gout,
Drank, ate, missed, got fat, decayed,
I at last in the bed
would Die in the middle of children,
of Whining women and doctors . it decided to change
Only in 27 years a way of life, begging friends to find to it the wife. The poet met the distant relative, the twenty-year-old beauty Sofie Pushkina in Moscow, and right there wanted to marry. “I am 27 years old, dear friend. It is time to live, i.e. to learn happiness, - he wrote the bride`s relative Zubkov. - My angel, persuade her, ask her and marry me“. Courtship did not take place. Sofie married another. The rejected groom began to look for new brides vigorously. Without results. At last met 16 - summer Natali, the hundred thirteenth love (E. Ch. in the same place). Let not from the first attempt, but the objectives were achieved. The list of hobbies from hundred thirteen female names contained only one unknown name under NN initials (not to confuse to N initials. N., belonging to Natalya Nikolaevna Goncharova, mentioned in correspondence among Pushkin`s friends). But was, it appears, among contemporaries there is Pushkina somebody who carried such pseudonym which is absolutely unambiguously understood by participants of the correspondence which reached up to now. (*1, on p. 29) we read
In the book: “He (Pushkin) during separation seldom wrote to parents; seldom also happened at them when chewed with them in one city. “Whether long ago you saw the father“, - asked him once NN“
If this the same NN that to Don - the Zhuansky list of Pushkin, it means the man as he “asked“, but did not “ask“
B other source is readable: “Once, in an attack of excessive good nature, our friend Turgenev took in head to praise NN for softness of its character and even heart. “Really, - said D, - his heart is soft as dirt“. pushkinskijdom. ru/LinkClick. aspx? fileticket=k9ypeTNfrDc &tabid=10183
I, at last, a secret of mysterious NN is revealed from correspondence Vyazma with Turgenev and Pushkin in connection with a mistake Vyazma, made in translation of the French word “relief“ (“remains“, “pieces“) as “bas-relief“ (“bas-reliefs of feasts of Homer“). See Katenin`s article in “The son of the fatherland“, 1820, the p. LIX, No. 5. In draft version of the letter to Vyazma Pushkin wrote: “You made a witty mistake, NN - the dark, stupid and fair remark. I wish that business on it stopped“.
In more detail about it in correspondence Vyazma and Pushkina (*6)
I Rejoice, dear Vyazemskoy that Preobrazhenskiy my friend podal mn; the case to carp k repeep;. You sd; lal a witty mistake, NN - dark, stupid and fair the deputy; chanye. I wish chtob d; lo on etom stopped. I pozdravil Katenina ot your name s shchastlivym isprazhnen_em Barelyefov pirov Gomerovykh. On otv; chal that your but not its; but it seems s bezpokoystvom ozhidayet your satirical club. Your first 4 verses on Katenin v poslan_ k to Dmitr_ev, are fine, sl; to a duyushch_a, necessary for poyasnen_ya persons, are weak and cold, and - friendship v the party, Katiening zasluzhivayet something pozl; e better. On opozdal to be born - not ideas (kotorykh at it N; t) - but harakterom, prinadlezhit on k the 18th table; the same author`s m; lkost and pride, t; literaturnyya intrigues and gossips. We vs; on the most part got used review; t on poez_yu, kak on the note seductress k which zakhodim sometimes to povrat also priests; to snichat, bez any sincere attachment without respecting opasnykh eya delights at all. Katiening naprotiv that at; zzhayet k to it v bashmakakh and powdered and prosizhivayet at it c; to Lui life s Platonic love, blagogovenyem and importance. Whatever you may say in; k nash not in; k poez_, minds not k are directed by it; and now udvoyennyya ri; we Voltaire could not pro-lime prezhnyago the d; ystv_ya - put; t, apparently, not about chem and after all it is a pity. In total priyatn; å - - to dazzle with verses boring humdrum of life, and for this purpose, for God`s sake send nam yourself more often. You recover to an odnoobraz_a nashikh vecherov. The first sn; g charm, but Unyn_e full chuvstv....
________________________________________ is For the first time printed with
1 in “the Russian Archive“ 1874, book I, Art. 115-116; it is reproduced in the edition of the prince P. P. Vyazma “Seven autographs of A.S. Pushkin“; a draft copy in the Pushkin House of Academy of Sciences.
Pushkin`s letter serves as the answer to the following addition of the prince turned to Pushkin Vyazma in his letter to A. I. Turgenev from Warsaw (where then served Vyazma) of February 19-20, 1820 (see the Academician of prod. Pushkin`s correspondences, t. I, p. 12-14): “Two words, and maybe more. To a cricket - to Pushkin. Congratulate, my lovely Sverchek, the friend of the NN [P. A. Katenin] with a happy excrement of bas-reliefs of feasts of Homer which so long lay at it on a stomach. I admit, I enclosed Eskhila [The Greek tragedian of the VI-V century BC] expression to it alien. The damned, though svyaty father Bryumoa tempted me; he told; “c’est une justice, que lui rendoit Eschyle lui - m; me, qui avoit coutume de dire, que ses pi; ces n’; toient, que des reliefs des festins etal; s dans l’Iliade et l’Odyss; e“. [Translation: “It is justice which was rendered to it by the Eskhil who was accustomed to say that his plays - only scraps (reliefs) of the feasts presented in the Illiada and in the Odyssey“.] Keen on poetic sense of likening (and in actual fact leaves: my fiction), I forgot to cope or, better to say, did not take care to cope with other source or at least with the French dictionary which, having told me that relief in language ancient means restes de viandes, would relieve me of a crime against Eskhil and a stomach of - on NN from bas-reliefs which, easily I confess with it, not so will digest as meat scraps“, etc.
the Preobrazhenskiy friend soon - Pavel Aleksandrovich Katenin (river 1792, mind. On May 23, 1853), officer of l. - gv. The Preobrazhensky Regiment (the captain since September 1, 1818, the colonel since July 5, 1820) with which Pushkin got acquainted in 1818 and devoted him two poems. Katenin was a person perfectly educated, the expert on the European literatures, but in tastes did not meet with Pushkin as he was the convinced supporter of classical school and translated Corneille, Racine; it did not prevent it to write and translate at the same time ballads and to appreciate, though is peculiar, Pushkin`s genius. “Full-faced, polnoshcheky and ruddy as the cherub on a willow, this boy boiled eternally as the coffee pot on a ring“, is said about it by Vigel according to whom Katenin did not give mercy “neither Russian, nor foreign, nor ancient, nor new“ to writers. Can be to it there was no wish to be along with ordinary people and courage of judgments to become above them; and whether rather it was a consequence of passion to disputes? Katenin was helped much by strong memory and a strong breast; with his memory he outvoiced everyone and long continued to argue still when the tired opponent answered it with silence long ago... I saw people ambitious to madness, but to it did not meet similar...“.
Secret of NN as to me it is thought, is opened and if to take into account that all members of the Arzamas circle had pseudonyms and communicated among themselves, and “full-faced, polnoshcheky and ruddy as the cherub on a willow“ P. A. Katenin was only a tidbit among his associates on this association, it is easy to assume that Pushkin had, likely, the basis to write down in the list of the sexual victories and such which was convenient to be hidden under a pseudonym among female names of its list.
Especially as it is noted in work (*7) “At Alexander I by homosexual bents were famous the minister of education and spiritual the prince put A. N. Golitsyn heading the Ministry of Public Education and spiritual affairs and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, and then the chancellor“.
V. N. Bantysh - Kamensk was caused to the emperor, and that “ordered it to make the list of all acquaintances by this part. On what Bantysh - Kamensk submitted him that list, having begun it the minister of education, then there was a chancellor and so on.... It had after that an audience at the sovereign and certified it is oath in truth of the report.“ A.S. Pushkin derided A. N. Golitsyn`s tastes and his protection V. N. Bantysh - Kamensk in the epigrams“.
“One of Alexander III`s contemporaries testified: “Many famous people of St. Petersburg indulged in shameful defect: actors, writers, musicians, grand dukes. They had names at all on lips, many advertized the way of life. The scandals accompanying opening for somebody such adventures lasted continuously, but dirty affairs usually did not come to court“.
In view of widespread defect among the tallest persons of government officials and even persons of the highest elite of the state and indignity which the poet at communication with them suffered, begging for indulgence to some of its seditions, it is easy to assume, as he had to be the victim of such perversions what he prefers not to expatiate on, but his separate statements in numerous epiramma, do not leave doubts in perversity of the existing power. It is enough to remember what in the message to F. F. Vigelyu Pushkin feels sympathy for it that that has to live in Chisinau, but not in the civilized city, wishes good luck in a gain of hearts of young men of Chisinau and promises to visit him, but only under one condition:
“ to You to serve I will be glad -
Verses, prose, all soul,
But, Vigel, - spare my back!“
Finishing this research on the subject “First Love of Pushkin“ and the compelled digression on “Whether There Was Pushkin the Homosexual?“, I would like to tell unambiguously the name of the first love - the Lead, and to answer the second question negatively, but to recognize that Pushkin was not so much a homosexual, how many the victim of the time and education. At the same time, in view of his misogyny coexisting with his enthusiasm to a female Pushkina will be more correct to carry to the bioseksuala assuming sexual desire to individuals of a different floor that does not exclude that among female names of Don is the Zhuansky list under initials of NN the man`s name under which Pushkin`s friend - P. A was known is written down. Katenin, and existence of such list is rather caused by Pushkin`s desire to leave the certificate to descendants that his sexual tendency more belongs to heterosexual (natural).
I will be grateful if the drawn conclusions cause interest of professional researchers and it is satisfied if our opinions coincide.
The list of the used literature:
* 1 - Pushkin`s Life told by him and his contemporaries in two volumes, Moscow, prod. “Truth“, 1987, volume 1,
* 2 P. K. Guber “Don - the Zhuansky list of A.S. Pushkin, ru/Pushkin/5. htm
* 3 - Vladimir Kirsanov. “Blue“ environment of Alexander Pushkin“. mitin. com/dj01/kirsanov. shtml,
* 4 - Evgeny Chernykh. “Lensky from a grave revenged Pushkin for the murder?“, kp. ru/daily/24113. 3 / 337103/,
* 5 - Collected works of A.S. Pushkin in two volumes, Volume 1, prod. “Fiction“, Moscow, 1968
* 6 Pushkin. Letters. Volume 1. 1815 - 1825. (Under edition and with B. L. Modzalevsky`s notes.
Moscow, Leningrad: State publishing house, 1926.)
* 7 - “Homosexuality history in Russia“
of mail. ru/arch/25050/2483775. html