Rus Articles Journal

What was created in Spain at the end of the millennium?

9th century outside. It becomes difficult to tell a story of Spain in a narrative form. There are several parallel plots, to the author just right to get confused, not only to the reader. I will try to present this matter in the chronology form with explanations.

In the first decade of the 9th century Charles the Great Louis the Pious`s son won the southern foothills of the Pyrenees from Muslims, in 811 the Spanish Brand was based. But for some reason not all counts ruling parts of Brand to the emperor were loyal. Here still nearby Vaskoniya (Baskoniya`s) duchy. It is unclear, it entered Brand or not, but revolted constantly.

812 - fight in the Ronsevallsky gorge. Basques against francs, ended with uncertain result.

824 - fight in the Ronsevallsky gorge (third). Rebels, columns of Pamplona Inyigo Arista and the count of Aragon Garcia Zloy crushed the army of francs sent to their suppression. They were helped in this case by Muslims (the close relative of the count Inyigo Musa ibn Musa from Bang of Kasya), without Basques did not do too, of course. Inyigo Arista declared himself the king of Pamplona and began to live quietly and happily. Musa ibn Musa too periodically revolted against the emir of Cordoba, and the king Inyigo did not refuse to help him with it. For what there was strongly a bit the emir`s son in 843, and in the 847th the kordovsky army took also a pozhgl Pamplona.

With 843 in Spain Vikings began to appear. In 844 they already attacked all coast, from all directions. But everywhere received due repulse, not as in other Europe.

844 - fight at Klavikho. The king of Asturias Ramiro I won against the emir of Cordoba Abdurrahman II. This battle is well-known for a legend - the phenomenon in the battlefield of Saint Iago, the patron of Spain.

850 - that there occurred - unclear, but since this year numerous records about executions of Christians with the formulation “the prophet Mahomed`s insult“ appear.

In 855 approximately the king of Asturias Ordono I took away the city of Leon from Muslims. Ordo?o several times suffered a defeat from the emir, but Leon did not give.

859 - Vikings captured the king of Pamplona Garcia Inigues. Released for big repayment. Same year Garcia finally quarreled with Bang of Kasya, but entered into alliance with the king of Asturias. Armies of Asturias and Pamplona won against Musa ibn Musa at Albeyda.

863 - the emir Mahomed I decided to become the tolerant governor, called representatives of Muslims, Christians and Jews that they agreed and stopped being at enmity. What achieved - unclear.

868 - Vimara Peresh, the vassal of the king of Asturias, took Porto and founded the county Portugal.

874 - to Bang of Kasya crushed army of the emir and took all Upper Bound (reference points - Zaragoza and Tarragona). For the next 30 years to Bang of Kasya are reconciled with the emir, are at enmity, select Zaragoza at them, they capture her again.



- the count of Barcelona Vifred Volosaty is appointed 878 of b. Over time he achieved that the county became hereditary possession. Except Barcelona Vifred was a count in six counties so rather strong state turned out still formally dependent on the Western Franksky kingdom.

880 - Umar ibn Hafsun lifted revolt against the emir of Cordoba, occupied the city of Barbastro with vicinities and founded the independent state there.

899 - Umar ibn Hafsun became Christian Samuel, built in Barbastro of churches and founded episcopacy.

All last third of the 9th century the king of Asturias Alphonso Veliky was at war with Muslims, with the emir, with Bang of Kasya. Every other time - it is successful, and sometimes suffered crushing defeats.

905 - Sancho Garsias from a sort Jimenez overthrew Fortuna Garsiasa and became the king of Pamplona. In the next 15 years Sancho continuously was at war, taking away from Muslims of the earth on a piece, eventually, he managed to increase the kingdom very much considerably.

910 - sons of the king of Asturias Alphonso Veliky lifted mutiny and forced the father to renounce. The got inheritance was divided fraternally, on the place of the former Asturias now by three kingdoms - Asturias reduced Leon and Galicia.

917 - battle at San - Esteban - de Gormas. Ordono II, the king of Leon and Galicia made armies of the emir of Cordoba full defeat, so, that corpses of Muslims covered all districts.

920 - battle at Valdekhunkere. Now the emir Abd are - Rahman terribly crushed allied armies of Leon and Pamplona. On it Muslims did not stop, crossed Pyrenean mountains and reached Toulouse. But in Gascony of already special feats could not make.

923 - the king of Leon took to Riokh and Nakher, and the king of Pamplona crushed to Bang of Kasya.

924 - to Bang of Kasya lost almost all the possession, their leaders arrived on service to the emir and disappeared from chronicles. The emir of Cordoba won against Christians Irati`s valley, took Pamplona and completely destroyed it. Sancho Garsias had to transfer the capital to Nakhera who was transferred to him by Ordo?o, the king of Leon and Galicia. Same year Ordo?o died, all lands of old Asturias passed to younger of Alphonso Veliky`s sons - Fruele. But now the kingdom was called Leon, and the capital was in the city of Leon. Fruela, however, not for long stretched, by this time he was already sick with leprosy.

928 - the city of Barbastro is occupied by troops of the emir and lost independence.

929 - the Emir (prince) of Cordoba Abd are - Rahman III accepted the Caliph`s title (the emperor and the Pope in one person). Till this time governors of Muslim Spain, though purely theoretically, but were considered as the Caliph`s vassals in Baghdad.

931 - Abd are - Rahman III took Ceuta on the African coast. So it still also belongs to Spain.

933 - Leon Ramiro II`s king and the count of Castile Fernan Gonsalez won against Muslims at Osm.

937 - columns of Barcelona Suniye of I won against Moors at Tarragona, reached Valencia and around ruined everything.

939 - fight at Simankas. The Christian coalition (kings of Leon and Pamplona and columns of Castile) inflicted terrible defeat over the Caliph of Cordoba, and then still finished it at Alandegi. The Caliph bore malice then and executed the soldiers running from a battlefield to the right and on the left.

It is possible to notice that this period is marked by victories of Christians. But somehow not especially these feats weakened the caliphate and did not bring to Christian governors of special bonuses.

951 - the king of Leon became Ordono III. His brother Sancho immediately lifted mutiny, he was supported by the king of Pamplona and columns of Castile so now Christians seriously also are for a long time busy with interstine fight.

966 - al`s Caliph - Hakam II ordered to cut down the majority of vineyards in Muslim Spain. Antialcoholic campaign still then began.

975 - battles at San - Esteban - - Gormas and Esterkuele. The army of the Caliph inflicted severe defeats over the Christian coalition.

977 - Mahomed ibn Abdalla (al - Mansour) consistently crushed the king Leon, the column of Castile and the king of Pamplona. Soon al - Mansour will seize real power at the juvenile Caliph, and will regularly and constantly beat Christians, to the death in 1002. The black period for Christian governors.