Of whom is the English literature proud? Charles Dickens of
“Manuscripts do not burn!“ What was meant by M. Bulgakov, putting forward this maxim? History corresponded repeatedly according to the official version reflecting ideology of a ruling clique. But it is impossible to rewrite the History imprinted on pages of literary works.
And therefore our idea of realities and spirit of this or that time, this or that country develops, first of all, under the influence of the read books.
19th century. England. Empress of the seas. Steam-engine. First-ever railroad. Freedom of enterprise and trade. Emphasized respect for the law and traditions, bear caps of royal guardsmen, freedom of press, personal freedom, proud anthem: “Never, never, never the Englishman will be a slave!“ It is the medal face. And a wrong side - “Little Dorrit“, “Oliver Twist`s Adventures“, “Dombey and Son“, “David Kopperfild“. The wrong side is England Charles Dickens.
Ch. Dickens was born exactly 200 years ago, on February 7, 1812, in the provincial town in the south of England. His father was a person artistic, with broad soul, with rich imagination, but thoughtless to a limit. He adored eight children, from all forces trying that the family did not need anything, without refusing to either itself, or children pleasures.
Dickens is most - the father was proud of the second child, Charles. The little boy was devilishly talented. The father in every possible way encouraged his improvisations, admired ability to reincarnate in heroes of the thought-up stories. The boy grew in the atmosphere of wellbeing, love and admiration, realizing the superiority, a selectness. It was waited by the brilliant future.
And suddenly everything came to an end. Dikkensa were ruined completely. The last years the family lived on credit. There was not enough salary, the dowry of the wife was dissipated. The father went to debt prison. It was necessary to fight against poverty mothers. Eventually Elisabeth with younger children was forced to move in prison, to the husband as to pay for the most modest housing there was nothing.
And Charles (the senior from sons) began to work. 12 hours a day the twelve-year-old teenager who got used to luxury in the dark cellar where rats teemed, pasted labels on boxes with shoe-polish.
Injustice, humiliation were intolerable. And still hunger (paid pennies) and fierce loneliness: he lived out of charity on an attic at foreign people.
“Shoe-polish“ became for Dickens the greatest insult. But if the destiny did not trip it dirty up if it did not appear at the very bottom of a social ladder, would not be Dickens`s which became for mankind a symbol of compassion and love to the poor person.
Young Dickens was ambitious. It is enormously ambitious. To be chosen, return back to that world where there was the real life - welfare, pleasures, freedom - it was not just the dream, it was the desperate, burning soul passion. To hope there was nobody, except itself, the abilities, the will and talent.
The following step - the stenographer in court. Payment is scanty, prospects any. But 30 - years in England - time of parliamentary discussions. Each party has the newspaper: conservative, liberal, oppositional, radical, religious, professional, exchange. Leave daily, weekly, monthly; morning releases, day, evening. Charles is 19 years old, he needs work, and newspapers need reporters.
However, nearly 2 years his name is known to nobody. He is just a stenographer in parliament, its task - to hand over by the evening literaturno the processed report on a morning meeting. He writes these reports on a lap, hurrying on the carrier in edition. And in the evenings creates sketches, outlining images of people which faces. He signs them with a name of the younger brother and shy offers the publisher. Work is taken over and printed (a simple style, amazing observation, a subtle humour - a God`s spark!) but for the present it is not noticed by public.
However the foundation is laid. Literature - here that will be for it a ladder on which it will rise by top!
Dizzy take-off begins with “Posthumous The Pickwick Papers“. “Note“ in which there is no drama plot are regularly published in the weekly and rivet attention of readers. These are not just sketches, this mirror in which British learn own lines, and the humour is so infectious that forces all England to laugh to tears.
In 26 years Dickens becomes the professional writer. “Oliver Twist`s adventures“ (1838), “Curiosity shop“ (1841), “Dombey and Son“ (1848) “David Kopperfild“ (1850), “Little Dorrit“ (1857) create an unforgettable picture of the English life of the middle of the 19th century, with inhuman living conditions of the lower class and ideals of family values and mercies.
Touching heroes, and first of all children in the moral purity, get to desperate circumstances, appearing in the power of disgusting types whose grotesque images are drawn with a ruthless brush. But also the writer, and his heroes are not abandoned by belief in a final celebration of good and therefore novels come to an end with an unexpected happy ending.
The images created by the imagination - living people whom the writer or mourns bitter tears, or laughs loudly over their eccentricities. Speak, finishing the novel, he was depressed from parting with his heroes. Dickens literally infects with the feelings the reader. We love, we hate, we cry and we laugh together with it, together with it we despise lie, meanness, arrogance, together with it admires an ideal of good, the truth, love.
The creative heritage of Dickens is huge, and its range is extraordinary wide. Especially it is noticeable during the late period of creativity: ruthless accusation of a money power in the novel “Hard times“ (1854), the sad autobiographical novel “Great expectations“ (1861) and nearby - “Our general friend“ (1864), light, cheerful, scintillating humour.
Dickens in 1870 died, without having lived till 60 years, without having finished the last detective novel “Edwin Drud`s Secret“...