How the world is arranged? Horizontal and vertical structures of the universe
of People - a being, inclined everything to order and to systematize. Even what we not quite understand we are inclined to represent in certain organized, once and for all a certain look. And what the most important in our world from the point of view of the conceiving being? Of course, the world!
By and large, we do not know how it is arranged. Also our ancestors did not know - but had a need for ordering. Also gave to the vision of the world the certain representation which reached and to our time. Served as a sample, in - the first, social structure, in - the second, topography of habitats.
The structure of the universe can be ordered down or across.
All of us “know“ how our world is arranged. From above - heaven, below - hell, and in the middle the world of people, the world live. It is one of the embodiments of vertical structure of the world. Concrete components at the different people can look differently, but an essence one: the world is ordered down. Above gods (and for example, heroes), below the dead (also “forces of evil“ can settle down here), in the middle - life, the person, the visible world.
But the world can be structured and across. Then the world of gods, the world of the dead belong, for example, for the sea or to the mouth of the river. Or the structure of the world becomes attached to parts of the world (The North, the West as a dwelling of the dead, the East as the world of gods).
These representations were reflected also in the universe symbols (the World Axis: A world Tree or Gore and the World River) connecting world elements. Probably, the most known and widespread of them is a World Tree, the Life Tree. And it is clear: the tree zrimo is divided into three parts reflecting three parts of the world: roots, trunk, krone. Besides, trees are known to most of the people. And here to take the mountain as a symbol, it is necessary that real mountains played a significant role in life of the people. The same concerns the sea: that the soul of the dead left “for the sea“, the sea has to be. And it is desirable “boundless“ and “insuperable“ behind which the visible world - as “comes to an end“, for example, at inhabitants of the Pacific islands. In the archaic world of the ancient person everything is interconnected, everything makes sense!
Probably, idea of model of the world is the brightest it is reflected in funeral ceremonies. Very much simplifying, they can be divided into two categories: when the dead after death goes to the top or lower worlds, or the ceremony is urged to facilitate its travel “afar“. So, burning is frequent (though not always!) it is urged to facilitate to soul ascension on the sky together with a smoke. But this binding is not absolute. For example, in rituals of Shintoism fire plays first of all a cleaning role.
“On the top of“ the dead it is possible to send and literally, lifting the body is higher than him. It is the simplest to lift it on the mountain or on a tree (in that krone which symbolizes the “top“ world). Possibly, the barrows filled over burials serve the same purpose, symbolizing the mountain. The leaving of bodies in the steppe practicing, for example, in Mongolia can be treated in every way. But one of aspects: the left body rasklevyvatsya by the birds lifting remains to the sky. It can seem wild and illogical to us looking at customs ancient through a prism of hristianizirovanny perception. But ancestors approached business more simply … and it it is necessary only to accept as the fact.
And here the horizontal model of the world assumed that after death of people U-00ABdown“, and “afar“ goes not “up“ or . Such approach is characteristic, for example, of residents of Polynesia, Melanesia, Oceania that is quite logical: when you since the birth to death are surrounded by the boundless ocean where still to place dwellings of gods and spirits? It is logical that for simplification of the last travel used the boat or its analogs. And the boat could be started up in the ocean and bury in a grave on the earth. Also “houses of the dead“ in the form of the boat are known though the dead (rank-and-file members of a community) could and just be buried in the sea.
Besides, the structure of the world reflects structure of society: vertical - hierarchical, horizontal - patrimonial. Society changed, and together with it also vision of the world changed. And at many people vertical and horizontal models coexist. For example, at ancient Scandinavians the kingdom of the dead is underground in the north. And Japanese, at prevalence of vertical structure of the world, kept since ancient times a number of elements of structure horizontal. The vertical model became Yamato prevailing since submission by the state of the neighboring tribes. In official mythology the vertical structure with the world of gods above and the world of the dead underground is accurately defined, local beliefs reached the subordinated position. But on a holiday of Bonds when souls of the dead come to the family, the way back by it is specified on the rivers or the sea … reflection of these universal ideas of structure of the world in literature Is characteristic
- first of all, in a fantasy, “peace-building“ is characteristic of this genre. Let`s tell, in D. R. Tolkien`s world with his developed mythology elves, leaving the world of people, leave “for the sea“. There they go also after death. It is remarkable that the chosen fate mortal Arwen dies on the hill, is closer to the sky where go after death of soul of people.