From where there was a mat and what means a strong mot? What
I Russian is not expressed by a strong mot? And it is the truth! Moreover, many abusive words are translated into foreign languages, but the fact that there are no full-fledged analogs the Russian mat in foreign languages and vryad is interesting - whether ever will appear. Not incidentally and the fact that any great Russian writer and the poet did not avoid this phenomenon!
As well as why the mat in Russian appeared? Why other languages do without it? Perhaps, someone will tell that at development of a civilization, with improvement of welfare of citizens in the majority of the countries of our planet need for a mat naturally disappeared? Russia is unique the fact that in it these improvements did not come, and the mat in it remained in virgin, its primitive form …
From where all - it to us came?
the version expatiated Earlier that the mat appeared in gloomy times Tatar - the Mongolian yoke, and before arrival of Tatars to Russia Russians did not use foul language at all, and swearing, called each other only dogs, goats yes rams.
However this opinion is wrong and is denied by most of scientists - researchers. Of course, invasion of nomads affected life, culture and the speech of the Russian people. Perhaps, such Turkic word as “the woman - yagat“ (the knight, the hero), changed the social status and sex, having turned into our Baba-yaga. The word “karpuz“ (water-melon) turned into the well-fad little boy. And here the term “fool“ (a stop, a halt) began to call the stupid person.
The mat has no relation because at nomads it was not accepted to talk smut to Turkic language, and swear words completely were absent in the dictionary. From the Russian annalistic sources (the most ancient known samples in birchbark manuscripts of the 12th century from Novgorod and Staraya Russa. See. “Obscene lexicon in birchbark manuscripts“. Specifics of the use of some expressions are commented in “Russko - the English dictionary - the diary“ Richard Dzhems (1618-1619).) it is known that abusive words appeared in Russia long before Tatar - the Mongolian invasion. Linguists see roots of these words in the majority of Indo-European languages, but they gained such distribution only on Russian soil.
So why all - from a set of the Indo-European people the mat stuck only to Russian? Researchers explain this fact also religious bans which at other people appeared because of earlier adoption of Christianity earlier. In Christianity, as well as in Islam, foul language is considered a great sin. Russia adopted Christianity later, and by then together with pagan customs the mat strongly took roots among the Russian people. After adoption in Russia of Christianity to foul language war was declared.
The etymology of the word “mat“ can seem rather transparent: allegedly it goes back to the Indo-European word “mater“ in mother value which remained in different Indo-European languages. However in special researches other reconstruction are offered.
So, for example, L. I. Skvortsov writes: “The literal word meaning “mat“ is “a loud voice, shout“. The onomatopoeia, that is involuntary shouts “ma is its cornerstone!“, “mya!“ - low, miaow, a roar of animals in the period of a techka, marriage appeals etc.“. Such etymology could seem naive if did not go back to the concept of the authoritative Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages: “... The Russian mat, - derivative of the verb “matati“ - “to shout“, “a loud voice“, “shout“, it is related to the word “matoga“ - to “matasitsya“, i.e. to wriggle, break, (about animals) to wind the head, “to matoshit“ - to disturb, disturb. But “matoga“ in many Slavic languages means “a ghost, the ghost, a monster, a fright, the sorcerer“ …
What it means?
of the Main abusive words three they also designate sexual intercourse, male and female genitals, all others are derivatives of these three words. But in other languages these bodies and actions have too the names which for some reason did not become abusive words? To understand the reason of emergence of abusive words on Russian soil, researchers glanced in depth of centuries and offered the version of the answer.
They consider that in the huge territory between the Himalayas and Entre Rios, on boundless open spaces there lived not numerous tribes of ancestors of Indo-Europeans who had to breed to expand the area of dwelling therefore huge significance was attached to genital function. And the words connected with genital bodies and functions were considered as magic. They were forbidden to be said “in vain“ not to maleficiate, to jinx. Sorcerers, behind them untouchable and slaves to whom the law was not pisan broke a taboo.
Gradually there was a habit to be expressed by a mat from completeness of feelings or just for a linking of words. The main words began to acquire a set of derivatives. Not so long ago, only one thousand years ago, abusive the word designating the woman of easy virtue “áë*òü“ was among. There is it from the word “vomit“, that is “to extort nasty thing“.
But the most important abusive word that word from three letters which meets on walls and on fences of all civilized world by right is considered. As an example we will also sort it. When there was this trigram word? I will tell one precisely that obviously not in Tatar - the Mongolian times. In a Turkic adverb Tatar - the Mongolian languages this “subject“ is designated by the word “kutakh“. By the way, many carry the surname coming from this word now and do not consider it dissonant at all: “Kutakhov“.
And how called genital body in age-old times? Many Slavic tribes designated it the word “ud“ from which, by the way, there is quite decent and acceptable “rod“. But all - at the majority of tribes the genital body was called not differently as “õ*é“. However this trigram word approximately in the 16th century was replaced with also trigram more literary analog - “her“. Most of competent people knows that quite so (her) was called 23 - I am Cyrillics letter which turned after revolution into a letter “ha“. It seems to those who knows it obvious that the word “her“ is the euphemistic replacement which arose because the replaced word begins with this letter. However actually not everything is so simple.
The matter is that those who so think do not ask a question and why, as a matter of fact, the letter “X“ is called a her? All letters of Cyrillics are called by Slavic words, value of the majority of which is clear to modern Russian-speaking public without the translation. What meant this word before becoming a letter?
In Indo-European language - a basis on which far ancestors of Slavs spoke of Balts, Germans and other European people, the word “her“ designated a goat. The word it is related to Latin “hircus“. In modern Russian it the word has related the word “mug“. This word called the goat masks used masked during Christmas carols until recently.
Similarity of this letter to a goat in the IX century for Slavs was obvious. Two top sticks are horns, and two lower are his legs. Then at many nationalities the goat symbolized fertility, and god of fertility was represented in the form of a biped goat. This idol between two legs had a body symbolizing fertility which carried the name “ud“ or “h*y“. In Indo-European language this part of a body was called “ïýñóñ“, to it there corresponds Sanskrit “प स स ्“ what is transferred to Ancient Greek as “peos“, Latin “penis“, Old English “faesl“. The word it comes from the verb “peset“, the meaning primary function of this body - to let out urine.
Thus, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the mat arose in ancient times and was associated with pagan rites. The mat is first of all a way to show readiness to break a taboo, to break certain borders. Therefore subject of curses in different languages similar - “a corporal bottom“ and everything that is connected with departure of physiological requirements.
Except “corporal curses“, some people (generally French-speaking) have curses blasphemous. Russians do not have it.
And one more important point - with a mat it is impossible to mix argotizm which are not a mat at all, and most likely, just skvernoslovny abuse. As, for example, only one thieves` argotizm with prostitute value in Russian tens: pace, Baruch, Maruja, gold-digger, shalava etc.