Where the road to space begins? In Samara!
Today it stopped being a secret: Samara - the capital of the Russian rocket production. Here already more than half a century build well-known “seven“, the first terrible intercontinental ballistic missile allowing the USSR successfully to wage many years cold war with “the probable opponent“. The rocket which took the first Soviet artificial satellite into Earth orbit. The rocket thanks to which the world heard the well-known gagarinsky: “Went!“, and on which the Russian astronauts still fly to space.
Despite the standard terms, at plant it is not accepted to call “seven“ the rocket. Five decades ago creation process of “a nuclear umbrella“ took place in a situation of the most strict privacy, since then and call the product rocket. The habit was created not in itself, and upon the demand of the resolution of the Soviet government, and thanks to continued works of a special department.
Construction of the rocket - single production. At plant there is no conveyor, but is full of manual skills. Construction of “doll“ (one more local term which arose in a working environment without any help of ministers and osobist), as well as for the child`s birth, requires nine months.
Dolls clothes - 165 thousand various knots and details. All most reliable. It is watched by three different structures: department of acceptance, bureau of technical control and military representatives. The success of flight depends on quality of assembly and accessories. Unlike the plane operated by the pilot, the rocket from the moment of start “is completely independent“: as it was constructed, and will depart.
Under control all operations. Any approach to “product“, all actions of each person with it are fixed in the registration certificate. On separate blocks and details own serial numbers. Always it is possible to determine by them who when and in what time performed work.
The rocket, the more payload is easier it is capable to deliver. Metal of which it is done - the facilitated aluminum and titanic alloys. Metal sheets cut out, preparations connect among themselves rivets. Expensively, harmfully, it is labor-consuming - but it is reliable. Klepka - the most reliable method of a stitching of metals applied in production of rockets and planes.
A skeleton of the rocket dress in “underwear“ - protective heat-insulating materials. Each prefabricated element of a design goes through fire and water - it is tempered in the furnace and checked for moisture resistance.
The weight of the rocket has to be precisely distributed on all volume. Routes of laying of pipelines and cables, installation sites of any devices are chosen taking into account balancing. To provide access to all details, in the case of the rocket the set of the most different hatches is placed. Of the size of sitting of a children`s chair works on a hatch cover fifty experts, on its production not less than a week leaves.
Rocket “small things“ - nuts, valves, locks - do in shop of fittings. The small things are not simple, any insignificant by sight a detalka maintains ultraboundary loadings in several tons.
In agregatno - assembly shop test rocket tanks, galvanize blocks, wash and paint. Here manually carry out welding works. On the rocket more than 22 km of especially strong welding seams. Each of millions of centimeters of a seam is checked a X-ray.
Modern “seven“ consists of seven huge blocks. Four - the first step, two - the second, and one - the third. All ready blocks of the rocket, the equipment and engines are aggregated in shop No. 212. Here carry out control tests of all product.
One of operations of tests - weighing of the rocket. Than it is easier, those more it can load. Delivery of each kilogram of freight to an orbit costs hundreds of thousands of rubles.
The ready rocket is packed - dress in a cover, and put in “box“ - seven railway cars. In packing its space travel, from Samara to the spaceport begins the railroad.