What not so with an electrical wiring? Part 1
In the previous article I sorted the general principles of the device of a room electrical wiring. And though it is the best of all to entrust elimination of malfunctions to professionals, situations happen different. And it is useful for any citizen to know (and if on forces - and to eliminate it) typical and simple malfunctions of an electrical wiring. Let`s get acquainted with the most widespread in more detail:
sockets do not work;
light does not work;
does not have light at all (neither sockets, nor chandeliers work);
the part of sockets does not work;
the chandelier does not burn;
the electric device beats with current;
lamps burn too brightly or too dimly.
in principle, many know that if “beat out traffic jams“ (the automatic switch was switched-off), it is necessary to come to a landing and the corresponding automatic machine to include. If there is no light anywhere, UZO feeding all apartment could be disconnected (or the automatic switch, or the differential automatic machine replacing it). Separate automatic machines disconnect rozetochny and light groups and an electric stove. Often separate line with the separate automatic machine is stretched for connection of the washing machine or additional sockets in kitchen.
As a rule, the switched-off automatic machine is defined externally on lowered down a rychazhka - to the switch. Usually it is just included, transferring to opposite situation. Remember: situation “is included“ - a rychazhok up. But sometimes automatic machines can be installed head over heels, pay attention to it.
The AE submachine guns which still remained in many houses - turn on 1031 a little differently: in the beginning the rychazhok falls against the stop down and only then is translated up. By the way, if it is beaten out, the rychazhok can not go to the lower situation, as at modern automatic machines. In principle, it is possible just to switch off and turn on the automatic machine. If it was disconnected, food will appear.
The shutdown reasons can be different: an overload from - for simultaneous turning on of several powerful electric devices (for example, a teapot, the microwave oven - the furnace and a heater), wear of the switch, oxidation of plugs of the automatic machine and the subsequent its overheat etc. If beat out the automatic machine once - most likely, nothing terrible. If it reacts to connection of excessively powerful devices or some concrete (perhaps, faulty!) the device, it is easy to notice it.
Pay attention at what moment sockets are switched-off. Perhaps, just before it some device works, for example, the compressor of the refrigerator or an extraction of the washing machine turns on (by rules, it has to be connected to a separate line, but in practice it is included also in the ordinary socket).
By the way, if you opened an electroboard, pay attention to automatic machines - more precisely, to their plugs to which wires are connected. Do not touch anything, only visually at all! If the automatic machine (especially well it is visible on automatic machines from light plastic) considerably darkened, the wires leaving it were melted off and became bare - it needs to be changed. Only do not panic, nothing terrible occurs. It is very probable that such automatic machine will serve not one more week, but you should not pull nevertheless. Call the electrician, further actions (and your) he will define.
If the automatic machine beats out again at once at inclusion, most likely, you deal with short circuit. What disappears under all this famous term?
Short circuit - only connection of a phase wire with zero or with any grounded detail. Normal current goes through the loading created by the electric device. Loading selects part of energy at current (you remember, we pay for the fact that we spend the electric power?) . If wires connect among themselves, current grows, without being limited to loading, and all energy is instantly emitted in the form of heat. The junction of wires melts.
In order to avoid it also turn on the automatic switch in a chain. It is arranged so that reacts to increase in current over a certain limit and is disconnected. The chain is broken off, current disappears. And if the automatic machine reacts to inclusion attempt instant shutdown moreover with click or a spark - for certain you deal with short circuit. It is the best of all to address the electrician in this case.
And if there is no such opportunity? What to do? For a start to switch off all electric devices from sockets. In - the first, it will preserve them if you include food, without having eliminated short circuit. In - the second, it will become clear at once: in conducting short circuit or in one of devices. If after shutdown of all the automatic machine does not turn on, it is better to address the expert able to look for malfunctions in an electrical wiring. If shutdown of devices helped, it is possible to try to turn on them on one. Again switched-off the automatic machine, thrust a fork, turned on the automatic machine. Everything is all right? Be not too lazy to disconnect the device from a network again and to pass to the following.
You should not turn on devices on one at the switched-on automatic machine. Things do happen. The automatic machine, of course, has to work, but sometimes it does not occur. It can be disconnected, having just lowered a rychazhok - but it is necessary to reach a board still. Besides the thin wire of the electric device can directly melt in hands. If the automatic machine is not switched-off even manually (for example, the rychazhok freely falls without characteristic click, and the automatic machine threateningly hoots and it is heated), it is possible and it is necessary to switch off at once UZO or introduction the automatic machine.
If found the faulty device, do not try to turn on it again. The next short circuit can lead including to serious damage of conducting. For example, otgorit contact … and how you will look for the place of break? Sometimes and electricians make a helpless gesture, concluding that it is simpler to replace all conducting, than to find malfunction.
Faulty sockets are often heated that it is easy to find to the touch. At long heating of plasticity of the socket turns yellow or even darkens, it begins to be jarred on. Pay attention to it and call the electrician or if you manage, replace such socket. Feature here that the socket (depending on the scheme of an electrical wiring) can be heated not only when something is included in it. Especially it concerns conducting in old houses, and first of all with the sockets located low over plinths. Therefore do not hope that you just will not use the socket. Often sockets are powered by so-called “loop“, one by one. At the same time one wire (feeding) comes to each contact of the socket from the previous socket, the second leaves to following.
Even if nothing is connected to the socket, it can be heated from - for bad or oxidized contact in a junction of wires. If at such scheme of connection otgorat a wire, all subsequent sockets cease to work. The sockets located to the place of break at the same time remain workers. Break can be in the last working socket (the wire coming to the socket is whole, and leaving otgoret) or in the first idle (otgoret the wire coming to it).
That is keep in mind that even if the indicator of tension does not show existence in the phase socket, the wire energized quite can be inside. Therefore open the socket, having only cut off power the line!