Middle Ages music: what it was? Troubadours and love of
I Can fall in the opinion of it? I will surround
of Liars with contempt:
the Lord, on punishment be fast
I of their vystava on a shame,
As that to whom I serve Considers
as if I keep
Other Lady in store...
(Folket Marselsky) of
In the 11th century in Western Europe the new phenomenon - vagrant musicians arose. In the north of France trouveres, in Provence - troubadours declared themselves. They sang on different adverbs, but the general was more. So there was a secular art connected along with castle, noble culture and with national: city and, perhaps, rural.
Remained not so few songs of troubadours and trouveres. Is known of their persons less. Also it is hard to say that there from legends.
First of all it is necessary to call Gilyom IX`S , the column of Poitiers (1071 - 1126 years) - chronologically the first of the famous troubadours. By the way, he was a great-grandfather of the Lion-Heart.
There is that exceptional case when the biography of the troubadour is rather well-known. His life was rough. For example, it two times was excommunicated. The first time - from - for problems with taxes. The second - from - for kidnappings of the lady.
I want to you, guards to give advice of simple
(And to my words only the deaf does not vnemlt):
do not try in vain, you will not be helped by robbery.
Ya did not see in the world of the lady young,
That bolts with a bracket could constrain.
If a way of a straight line is ordered, the way will be found by it a curve .
However, kidnapping of the viscountess Danzherossa de L`il - Bouchard was made at a full consent of the last. The second cousin Gilyoma - the Pope Kaliksta of II helped to remove this last renunciation.
I do not know under what star
he is born: neither kind I, nor angry,
all the favourite, the derelict,
But all in a rudiment;
Ya is presented by the fairy night
In the deaf to a raspadka .
Gilyom IX is often called by Francois Villon of the 11th century.
Also one of the very first troubadours - Markabryun . He is known that there was it the foundling who was brought up by a certain rich person. Its songs are characterized by some social implication and not “courtois“ language. Probably, he did not avoid in the songs and biting expressions.
Other troubadour - Zhofre Ryudel - was a count, Platonically fell in love with east princess from Tripoli - the countess Godyerna Tripolitanskaya, went to a crusade, got sick on the road and died on hands of darling who was right there tonsured to the monastery.
The following troubadour - Rigaut de Barbezieou`s - fell in love with the daughter of the previous troubadour, sang of it in verses, and after her death went to Spain (possibly, ended the days in the monastery).
The destiny of the troubadour Guilyom de Cabestan was tragic. He fell in love with the wife of the count at court of whom he lived - to Raimund (also other name, but all the same - the count`s wife is given). The count killed the troubadour and fed the adulteress with his heart. Raimunda from a grief jumped out from a lock balcony. By the way, the troubadour was so popular that neighbors of the count reproached him with this murder.
The troubadour Monk Montaudonsky not for nothing bore this name. He was initially Benedictine monk, but painfully liked to compose songs. The monastery released the monk and allowed it to be engaged in wordly business on condition that it will give all income from songs to native monastery. It is unlikely it can be considered such as tragic destiny.
To Folket Marselsky , on the contrary, after spent youth as the troubadour, devoted himself to church - and even became the bishop. Adjoined crusades, participated in inquisition affairs. And also founded the Toulouse university. In “The divine comedy“ of Dante Alighieri it is in “section“ “Paradise“.
But Dante placed the troubadour Bertran de Born in the eighth circle of hell. It was connected with the fact that Bertran de Born was quite aggressive person. It is a lot of attention in the songs - verses gave to questions of military valor. He was at war against the Lion-Heart, and then - for the Lion-Heart.
Everywhere the world - and all with me
Still a little wars.
That yes will go blind by whose fault
We will be separated from it!
their world - not for me,
With war in the union I...
(Bertran de Born) of
But the troubadour cannot without songs about the Lady. Many songs of Bertran remained.
But ours of Donna lost youth, Kohl of the knight they have no
any more, Or at once two they to themselves gained
Or love those whom to love not a trace,
I value honor of the lock a little...
(Bertran de Born) of
the troubadour spent the Last years of life in the monastery. Bertran de Born is one of the best-known troubadours. Heine and Ezra Pound devoted it the poems, the translation of one of its songs is inserted into the poem “Rose and Cross“ of Alexander Blok. Bertran is one of characters of the novel of Lyon Feykhtvanguer “The Spanish ballad“. And also main hero of the Russian writer Elena Hayetskaya “Bertran from Languedoc“. About Bertran compose songs, including, here and now.
All troubadours sang about love to the Great Lady. Occasionally concerned also social problems. But the basic - love. Platonic, but who knows?
And what ladies? Really they were limited to a remarkable role of sung? No, there were also trubadurka. And they sang of men - the darlings.
Azalais de Porcayragues is the woman - the troubadour. Years of her life are unknown. Only the fact that its songs were devoted to her beloved is known. One its song - crying is written on the death of other troubadour - Raymbaut Oransky.
One more trubadurka - the countess Beatrisa de Dia . She was married, but is in love with other troubadour. It also sang of it:
I chose one worthy and noble Through whom
improves and honor,
Generous, dexterous and acute is improved,
B which is wit and wisdom.
Ya I ask it that he trusted me,
I let will force it to believe nobody,
That I will change it -
If only it does not change me...
Ideal fallen in love - left, but continuing to love. I want to remind that “courtesy“ is not debauchery, this just special relation to life, in some way it even was then education of feelings.
And who will tell darling bad about love
let he does not believe that,
but only to what I will tell.
often lifts rods of people,
which he is bit .
(Beatrisa de Dia)
Troubadours were absolutely “media figures“ as it is called now. They traveled around all Europe and not only, from the lock to the lock carried news, investing them in song (from it is even more memorable) a form.
All works of troubadours cannot be considered within one article. Their songs played a huge role in development of the general musical culture of the European Middle Ages. In conclusion it would be desirable to mention trouveres - at least only on one example.
Adam de la of Al , or the Arassky humpback (1240 - 1287, the humpback was not - the nickname devolved) - the French poet - the composer, the trouvere. It is known that refused acceptance of a dignity and the fact that wrote 36 monothematic songs (chanson). And still belongs to its feather, in the general opinion, the first secular musical play of the European theater .
“Game about Roben and Marion“ - the lovely musical play with a simple plot. The shepherdess Marion loves the commoner Roben. But all the time appears a certain knight, Marion asks to become his girlfriend, at last, violently takes away her. The poor thing bitterly and long cries. Her innocent tears touched the knight so that he allows to go home her. All on pleasures sing and dance.
This story goes back to the medieval French song which was called pasturel . In it there was always a girl and the knight who for some reason always met her where he went (“I went astride once...“). Adam of de la of Al processed a plot a little and wrote music.
How music developed further, it will be possible to read next time. And it is possible to listen to songs of troubadours and the song about troubadours in comments.