STEN Mark II. How “rare shit“ became the most mass weapon of allies in World War II?
of “STEN“, of course, rare shit, but it made a considerable contribution to our victory“. (English general Alexander.) Yes, so considerable that since then the term “sten“ in the English weapon slang designates “submachine gun“. In general. Any.
Remark: instead of the long term “submachine gun“ in article the standard reduction of “software“ will be used .
British thought of the individual automatic weapon after the European neighbors. Prior to World War II practically all automatic weapon in the English army was the American production. Expensive, but reliable and checked. However at the beginning of World War II America practically stopped arms supplies to England, was not enough.
At the beginning of war (the end of 1939 - the beginning of 1940) Britain suffered the most cruel shortage of the weapon - delivery from - for a boundary stopped, and the weapon just was not. Infantry companies were armed, except conventional weapons, with wooden models of rifles to deceive the German spies. Especially sharply the problem of shortage of small arms rose in June, 1940 when English - the French troops were crushed by Germans and 250 thousand almost disarmed soldiers returned to England.
Military department sent the order for development to the state arsenal, to the city of Enfild. At first British tried to copy the checked design of the German software of MP28. The simplified copy of MP28 received the name “Lanchester“. For this reason under the new weapon the pistol German boss was chosen that, whenever possible, to remake nothing. But Britain had no opportunity to let out in a short space of time a large number non-technological “Lanchesterov“. Then the major Redzhinald Shepperd and the engineer Harold Tarpin, offered the Ministry of Defence own development. Later she received the name “STEN“ on initial letters of surnames of developers and the cities of Enfild where this work was conducted (Shepherd - Turpin - Enfield - “Shepherd - Tarpin - Enfild“). The full name on the English classification - 9 mm STEN machine carbine (9 mm an automatic carbine of STEN).
Software of “Sten Mark I“ under a pistol cartridge of 9ő19 mm “Automatic pistol“ became “first signs“. Mark I was the typical weapon of that time - wooden to a tsevya, a cylindrical receiver, the long, closed by the punched casing trunk with the dulny compensator on the end. It is let out in 1941, very small party. The military commission recognized it “insufficiently cheap“.
The second modification, “Sten Mark II“, was simplified to impossibility. Production of this software was begun in September, 1941, all before the end of World War II only in Great Britain software “Stan“ of different modifications made more than 3 million pieces For comparison: during World War II in nazi Germany (for which all Europe worked) software of all types released a little more than 1 million 200 thousand pieces the Cost of its production was tens times lower, than at software of system of Thompson who was also consisting on arms of the English army and made slightly more than 2 English pounds (5 dollars 20 cents at the rate of 1941) ! Continuous breakages and misfires were a consequence of this “low cost“.
Sten Mark II software automatic equipment is based on the principle of return of a free lock, the simplest of all possible. It consisted of only nine parts. At first for production “Stenov“ used usual water pipes and cheap steel. The lock was turned on the ordinary lathe and then was tempered. The butt was made of the flattened thin-walled tube. As for a trunk which is exposed when firing to the greatest loadings high-quality steel was required, it was made the shortest. The casing reached only a half of a trunk. The safety lock was not, its role was carried out by a cross pro-point where the lock lever was started. Locking at the time of a shot is carried out by a lock and a fighting spring. The spring from low-quality steel quickly wore out.
The design of shop was imperfect too, in 32 - the charging holder was usually loaded on 20 - 25 cartridges if to load more, warped cartridges and the weapon jammed. The shop was inserted at the left. From - for short a trunk and lack of the dulny compensator, in combination with an inconvenient butt and primitive aim devices, it was only necessary to dream of high shooting accuracy. In hand-to-hand fight the butt bent, the bayonet badly fastened, and after falling the weapon quite often shot at dirt or dust even after the termination of pressing descent.
Originally armed with “Stenami“ desantno - assault groups. The first “Stena“ were often used as “the disposable weapon“ (at the first opportunity it was replaced trophy), however continuous improvement of technology and further modernization gradually corrected the most scandalous shortcomings.
In large-scale offensive operation on August 19, 1942. near the strengthened area Dyepp, “Stan“ for the first time proved software as the excellent weapon for near fight. Further - it is more. “Stena“ not only British, Australians, Canadians and fighters of the French Resistance, but also … used the troops of CC combating guerrillas and the German militia of Volkssturm. By the end of war of “Stenami“ more than a half of soldiers of the British army were armed, and “stenopodobny“ software of M - 3 Grease gun at the end of war armed also the American infantrymen.
All five main modifications, quantity of variations in general were developed nobody considered. For example, the Sten Mark IIS model - the silent option created on the basis of Mark II for carrying out diversions in the back of the enemy. Modification “Sten Mk. V served in army of Great Britain until the end of 60 - x, and software of “Sterling“, the lineal heir “Wall“, served in the English army until the end of 80 - x years 20 - go centuries.
Taktiko - technical characteristics of software of “Sten Mark II“
the Boss; 9ő19 mm.
Initial speed of a bullet; 365 m/s.
Weight (without shop); 3,7 kg.
Capacity of shop; 32 Patras.
Rate of firing; 550 vystr. / min.
Practical rate of fire; 100 - 120 vystr. / min.
Aim range; to 100 m
Originally software “Stan“ were made by the English arsenal in the city of Enfield. Soon after their production it was developed also in Canada. Quality of the Canadian weapon was much better than English. In Australia “Stan“ rather strongly modernized and improved, added plastic handles, from - for what the Australian software became similar to the German MP - 40. This software of “Austen“ - “the Australian Stan“ was called.
High technological effectiveness and lack of scarce materials led to broad copying of this type of the weapon. “Stenopodobnye“ of software was done even in guerrilla marching workshops in the territory of the European states occupied by Germans. In nazi Germany the upgraded copy of “Stan“ was called MP - 3008. Clones of “Stan“ were issued in Norway, Denmark, Poland, Israel, Belgium, Argentina, Taiwan and other countries.
Up to 60 - x years 20 - go centuries “Stan“ was the most widespread weapon at war in Korea and in all African wars, for example, in the conflict of 1956 on the Suez Canal. Some of its modifications were used by Americans during war in Vietnam.
As lineal descendants of “Stan“ consider M - 3 Grease gun (the modernized “Stan“ remade under the American cartridge 45 - go caliber) - the American software of times of World War II and post-war English software of Sterling L2.
“Stan“ officially was on arms in armies of Egypt, Israel, France, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway and Turkey.
Well I will also repeat that the term “sten“ in a modern English weapon slang designates “submachine gun“. In general. Any.