How the electrical wiring in the apartment is arranged? The general principles
the Idea of article about a household electrical wiring arose when I once again explained to acquaintances the device of the threefold switch for a bathroom. I also wanted to tell about this switch raising questions at nonspecialists. And having understood that the marked switch - piece simple if you understand the principles of the device of an electrical wiring, decided to come from far away. electric current with water current Is comparable
. Water flows on a pipe to the turbine and, rotating it, flows away on the second (departing) pipe. If to block the second pipe, current of water will stop also the turbine will cease to rotate. Electric current works absolutely similarly. There is “the giving pipe“ - a phase wire to which at a touch tension indicator shines. There is “the taking-away pipe“ - working zero on which current “flows away“ from “turbine“ - the device. If, for example, the working zero is torn off, current in a chain disappears. But tension on the device remains (the turbine remains it is filled in with water, and once the way appears outflow, “water“ will begin to flow again).
Actually everything is slightly more difficult. From electropanel board to apartments there is not one phase wire, but three. Coming back to our comparison: on three pipes water flows, through one flows away back. It is the standard five-wire scheme: three phases and working zero. There is still a grounding wire, but about grounding conversation separate. So far we will present that it is absent. Between any different phases tension makes 380 volts, between any phase and a zero wire (“zero“) 220 volts. A phase, zero and grounding - that what we began with and that comes to your apartment.
As a rule, citizens deal with the following scheme.
Each entrance eats the cable consisting of 4 or 5 veins. Three phases and zero are present always, the separate grounding wire in old houses can not be.
In electropanel board houses are the automatic switches feeding “room“ lines. Usually on one on each entrance. Automatic machines cut off power the line in case of short circuit or an overload (if the power of electric devices exceeds admissible).
The four-vein cable is connected:
- three veins to three plugs of the automatic switch;
- a zero vein to the zero plug or (in old houses) directly to the electroboard case.
The cable is laid through the cellar and from there climbs a strut, passing through the distributive electroboards located on floors.
Attention! the practical part From this point begins. The electric equipment with which inhabitants deal begins with an electroboard.
Here it is possible to see the isolated veins lasting from below up thick from which there are branches to the equipment of a board. The concrete way of switching differs depending on house type therefore I will speak about a certain conditional option. Not the concrete method, but the principle is important for understanding.
Through a board there pass three phases and zero. We for simplicity omit grounding.
For work of electrical household appliances one phase and zero are necessary (you remember: the pipe pumping water and the pipe which is taking away?) . Therefore, one of phase wires has a site where isolation for connection of the wires giving current to apartments is removed from it.
The place of connection can be as opened (for example, the bared vein just is attracted by the plug to the tire from which the wires feeding apartments depart), and closed (for example, plastic “nutlet“ in which the departing wires are attached to the feeding vein again - by the plug). If the phase wire incidentally connects to zero, there will be a short circuit; hit of a phase on the case of an electroboard is deadly to the person who touched it (it the same as to concern the bared wire). Therefore phases are always isolated from the case.
And here the zero wire, on the contrary, often connects to the board case.
We will assume that on the floor at us three apartments. To each of them also one depart from tires one phase zero veins. Both veins are connected to the UZO entrance plugs - devices of protective shutdown (in his old houses can not be in general, for example, in my house 80 - x there are no years of construction of UZO). Two wires entered from above, two left from below to the electric meter. In need of UZO it is possible to disconnect, having cut off power the electric meter and all apartment at once.
From the counter the phase wire goes to entrances of single-phase automatic switches, connecting special crossing points to entrances of all automatic machines (if necessary with their help it is possible “to break off“ a phase, having cut off power the necessary line in the apartment), the zero wire is connected to a block or a klemmnik (usually it is located near automatic machines or over them).
All electrical wiring of the apartment is divided into several lines or groups. Most often it is rozetochny group, light (feeding chandeliers) and the line for an electric stove. Happens differently, but I consider the standard “average“ scheme. To each line the phase and zero arrive from an electroboard. Conditionally speaking, from the apartment to a board are stretched in overlappings on a three-vein wire from each group. To a board of a wire go down on the channels laid in a wall and are connected according to the standard scheme: lived alone to an exit of the automatic switch (from above automatically - an entrance, from below - an exit), the second to one of free plugs of a zero block or a klemmnik. That is on the one hand the feeding zero wire from the counter, with another - the departing wires to room lines approaches a block. The same and with automatic machines, only here each line is connected to the, separate automatic machine.
All of us deal with automatic switches if it is necessary to cut off power the apartment. Or from excessive loading “beat out traffic jams“ - though actually traffic jams remained in absolutely old houses, many call so automatic switches. Then we come to a landing and we include or we switch off automatic switches.
So, to the apartment there are two veins: zero from a zero block and phase from the automatic switch. And so three times, three groups: sockets, lighting and electric stove.
In the apartment the wire feeding an electric stove (it it is easy to define: he is more fat than others), goes, without branching, to the plate socket. Two other groups branch to a number of the lines going to illuminants and sockets. Light wires are laid in overlappings, partially in walls: where the wire falls to the switch. Rozetochnye can pass differently, in modern houses, as a rule, they also go down from a ceiling in a wall to each socket. In houses of construction 60 - 80 - x years differently. General reference point: arrangement of sockets. Usually wires go down from above where sockets are located highly (approximately in meter) over a floor. If they are established over the plinth, wires most likely are laid in a floor.
Naturally, conducting does not represent one integral wire. Lines many times branch and connect. There is all this in the raspayachny boxes walled in a wall (plastic, in old houses - metal) or just in wall cavities under a ceiling. Usually such places are closed by metal covers and easily are defined under wall-paper by a prostukivaniye.
In most cases from one automatic machine all sockets, except one are powered: located in the block of switches of a bathroom (often the light and in kitchen is turned on here). This socket is powered from the “light“ automatic machine together with other lighting.
If the additional socket in a bathroom is installed, it can be connected to any group, and also have in general the separate automatic machine. If you need to carry out with it any manipulations, do not rely on a case. Be convinced that you really cut off power it. Include a desk lamp in the socket and at the burning lamp switch off the automatic machine. The lamp went out? You disconnected what is necessary!
Nevertheless “instructions are written by blood“ - and therefore be surely convinced of lack of tension by means of the index of tension (indicator). Consider that many sockets are protected from “a nesanktsinirovanny vtykaniye“ of foreign objects by children. Nests of the socket are closed by a blind which opens at a simultaneous vtykaniye of two probes (as well as occurs at inclusion of a fork). So, using the indicator, be convinced that really reached plugs. It is the best of all to check the indicator the socket with uncovered.
It can turn out and so that in the apartment several rozetochny groups powered from different automatic machines. For example, the separate line can go on sockets of kitchen or a bathroom, separate lines on each room (the fashionable scheme can be laid, especially at independent installation of conducting). There are also alterations of the standard, it seems, scheme - for example, compelled, at elimination of malfunctions.
So if are not sure that correctly you understand the electrical wiring device, it is better to address experts. Though they sometimes make a helpless gesture, seeing creation of the unknown construction electrician …