Rus Articles Journal

How the proletarian writer, the English seamen and the French naturalist of a penguin wanted to offend?

of Who are you, pinguin?

“The silly penguin shy hides a body fat in rocks …“.

(M. Gorky “The song about the Petrel“)

“Somehow time once Gorky

Composed verses about a bird,

That flies over the plain,

Enjoying fight of life.

Is inspired, but scientifically

Stated about a thunder of blows

I how the petrel

Conducted to communism victory.

But as the uncle Gorky

Not the poet was, and the prose writer,

That had problems with a rhyme,

the Syllable, yamby and a trochee.

I when need arose,

That someone hid a body,

Indicated Memory of the classic of Russia

a penguin. whether


In the life though Saw penguins once,

That is unknown to gagara,

of the Seagull do not give the answer …“.

(“In protection of a penguin“, the author is unknown)

Why the famous proletarian writer M. Gorky needed to humiliate so this lovely bird - is unknown. It is especially strange, considering that most of people concern to penguins with badly hidden sympathy. It is difficult to find the birds more similar to the person - similar the collectivism, the vertical tripping gait and the coloring reminding a dress coat of some conductor of a symphonic orchestra (whether this “the bourgeois clothes“ confused Gorky?) .

A joke in a subject:

“South Pole. The Chukchi and the geologist sit.

- the Geologist, narrations, a zensin absolutely white happens?

- Happens!

- And absolutely black happens?

- Happens!

- And a zensina half black, half white happens?

- No, does not happen.

- Means, it was the penguin …“.

Anyway, “conductors“ of these birds was not called. The seamen of expedition of Vasco da Gama, the first of Europeans who found penguins in the southernmost tip of Africa in 1497 for some reason compared them to geese. And the English seamen in general were too lazy to invent something and christened these birds others name. The matter is that at first (“pinguin“ - from the changed English combination “pin - wing“ - “a hairpin - a wing“) nicknamed “penguins“ wingless auks - the birds living on islands of northern Atlantic - same it is black - white, clumsy and not flying. And then this nickname passed also to feathery “natives“ of the Southern hemisphere.

The French scientist of the 18th century Zh. Byuffon tried to bring order to this confusion, and suggested to call penguins of “manshotama“ - “clumsy“, but it somehow did not get accustomed. And when in 1844 in Iceland ruthless Homo sapiens killed the last couple of Pinguinus impennis (a scientific name of a wingless auk), to “southerners“ finally passed a name of the exterminated bird.

F. Krivin “the Wingless Auk“:

“Is told, she was killed by hunters, as well as all other wingless auks. But it is a lie, it cannot be: it here, in the north, replaced a penguin. It walked a vperevalochka - in a black dress coat and a white zhiletochka as the real representative of a penguin, the plenipotentiary … Unless it is possible to kill the plenipotentiary?

… Just it departed, - can be, even on the South to consult to a penguin and to renew the powers. … It will arrive, of course, it will arrive, let there will only come the peace time! And it will come. How many hunters would not shoot, as if they okhotnichat on the earth, the peace time will come … Also it will come when the Wingless Auk flies back“.

Ice and water

“A penguin - a sea bird; badly flies and

(From the explanatory dictionary of V. Dahl, 1882)

the Distance goes resistant“, as well as Gorky, probably poorly knew penguins. It is impossible to tell about a penguin “badly flies“. The truth and it would be not quite fair to declare that it does not fly at all. And differently why to it such excellent Kiel - the bone outgrowth of a breast created by the nature for fastening of flying muscles? Here ostriches and have no kiwi of Kiel, as well as it is necessary. And at a penguin it not only is present, to it still the most powerful muscles fasten (at some types the chest muscles make 1/4 part of all weight of a bird).

So our hero flies - only flies not in the peace sky of Antarctica, and in the thickness of water. Also flies very quickly - with a speed up to 40 km/h! Wings - flippers rotate like screws, legs “drive“ therefore to jump out in full operation of water directly on an ice floe - to a penguin a piece of cake. However, in view of the fact that legs at it are located on the end of a body, on the land our hero trips really clumsily.

“The most humane profession“ (the author is not established):

“In Antarctic the most rare profession on Earth - Perevorachivatel Pingvinov is.

Can it officially somehow in a different way is called, but not in it business. The matter is that a penguin if falls on a back, then cannot independently rise.

In normal conditions a penguin generally never on a back falls - whether the tail disturbs it, whether the center of gravity is so located. Ho in Antarctic, near airfields, there where fly any planes - helicopters, penguins so strongly lift up the head on a sound that some of them will take and bryaknutsya on a back without hope to rise independently.

I here for these is that is more whole and there is Perevorachivatel Pingvinov. After each take-off or landing it goes around airfield and puts poor penguins on legs. Very rare and at the same time one of the very best kind professions“.

Of course, it is a literary joke. No Perevorachivatel is necessary to the fallen penguin. If the bird needs to move quicker, she will fall to a belly and, dashingly working with flippers, will slide on ice, a yak on the sledge.

At such ways of movement well developed feathers were not necessary for a penguin - they at it rigid, lamelliform. However, unfortunately, almost completely deprived of down. Therefore our hero is protected from cold by a three-centimetric grease layer. By the way, unlike all other birds, feathers at a penguin grow on all body and drop out at the same time! New feathers just grow under old, pushing out them. A penguin molt - process not esthetic and unpleasant. At this time the bird retires, eats nothing and reminds an effigy with the disappearing tatter.

One more difference of a penguin from other birds - bones. At the majority of birds they hollow, easy. At a penguin of a bone heavy, completely filled with bone substance. Therefore on a water surface our heroes do not swim, like a stopper or a duck, and considerably “sink“. But to penguins, as to the birds diving, it only on advantage. If water easily pushed out them, as if they could do zanyra on 250 - meter depth?

The one who thinks that all penguins of life do not hope without 60-degree frosts and ice landscapes is mistaken. Just in desert Antarctica they look more considerably. Actually in group of penguins there are from 15 to 17 types, and not all of them are “polar explorers“. Our heroes can be met also in the south of Africa and Australia, and on the coasts of South America. And the galapagossky penguin approached directly the equator (find Galapagos Islands on the card). However in the Northern hemisphere penguins are not found - neither in live, nor in a fossil look.

The sizes of penguins are also very various. For example, the small penguin - only 40 cm in size is also more similar to a toy while the penguin imperial reaches in height of 120 cm and quite quietly can peck you in a shoulder. And here the fossil penguin of Nordensheld could peck you directly in a forehead because he growth did not concede to the person, and weighed the whole 120 kg.

In spite of the fact that we habitually consider as a symbol of Antarctic an imperial penguin (for his growth and a bearing), polar explorers can not agree with us. They should face Adele`s penguins more - birds fearless, curious and persuasive. Besides, this look and the most widespread in Antarctic (about 3 million couples).

One of the most interesting penguins is the asinine penguin. In - the first, it roars like stubborn to the namesake, in - the second, it has not less “stubborn“ eggs which cannot absolutely be hard-boiled!

But about eggs - next time.