Kalamistra, barbers, barbers, stylists... How many years to hairdresser`s art? Part 2
In the 19th century in Europe governs a new class - the bourgeoisie, and from now on the tone in the world of fashion is set by Vienna.
In hairdresses absolutely new style - “biedermeier“ appears. Far acting magnificent ringlets, standing loops and braids are characteristic of it. Creation of such hairdresses demanded from the hairdresser of very great technical skills. However, they looked flat and angular.
A century of the bourgeoisie - a century of rapid development of equipment. The wave, a hairstyle of hair are carried out by means of various mechanical and electric devices, such as nippers for a thermal curling and hair curlers now.
The fashion on blondes read off scale all limits when the famous French hairdresser Evgeny Gugo thought up to clarify hair by means of hydrogen peroxide solution. Literally for half a year in the high society there is no brunette left and the brown-haired woman. All ladies it is universal became blondes.
Hair were set in high hairdresses, to them small hats with tapes, flowers, feathers fastened (ostrich`s, painted in pink and blue, peacock, cock, fazany). From - under hats on shoulders of beauties fell graceful ringlets (sometimes artificial).
If earlier the fashion on hairdresses could hold on till 40 years, then in the 19th century term was considerably reduced that was promoted much by advertizing, exhibitions, fashionable magazines, theatrical performances.
The first competitions of hairdressers began to be held in the nineteenth century, and, of course, in Paris. On competitions the best masters not only from France, but also from England, Germany, Austria etc. gathered. After the end of a competition parade of hairdresses began, and the winner sat on a gold chair, receiving congratulations.
In 1885 Frenchman Marcel invented a hairdressing by means of chemical means which could hold on on hair several days. German Charles of Nestle in 1906 brought this method to perfection. The hairdressing executed by means of chemical solution and thermal heating (permanent wave) could hold on already whole half a year.
In the same time chemists opened “an opportunity for all to become beautiful“ - dye which became a basis of almost all modern hair-dyes.
In the XX century female hairstyles become fashionable short (under the boy) and if earlier similar was considered indecent, then now such hairdress became a symbol of female freedom and new life. Especially as Europe was overflowed by World War I, both many girls and young women, having become sisters of mercy, worked in hospitals. They just did not have time for care of long hair.
Being constantly improved, “malchukovy“ hairstyles remain popular and today.
The big impetus to development of hairdresser`s art was given by cinema. The image of a naive innocent golden-haired angel embodied by famous Mary Pikford reigned in silent cinema: the huge mass of the hair divided into 18 accurate ringlets (two of them are stored in the Hollywood museum of cinema). The vast majority of women of those years tried to correspond to it.
Now into the forefront the fatal beauty - the woman vamp stepped. The viewer loves Asta Nielsen and Francesca Bertini - fragile and pale, with straight lines short ugolno - black hair in Caret style. The direct bang which is falling down on brightly used eye shadow it is bright - red lipstick complete this image. And it is natural, hairdressers were tortured requests to make the same hairdresses. Blondes had “to move“ (for some time).
In 50 - e years on the world screen there is Marilyn Monroe, and blondes “on a horse again“. Beauty shops and usual hairdressing salons are filled by the women seeking to become fragile, gentle blond beauties.
After an appearance in 1956 of Roger Vadim`s movie “And god created the woman“ an idol there is an actress Bridget Bardot. She brought into fashion new hairdresses - a straight flowing hair, strict, a laconic “horse tail“ and magnificent “babette“ with a pile.
From the middle 60 - x years of the woman “are fond“ again of wigs which become a fashionable accessory now as gloves or a handbag. Especially “advanced“ women of fashion had then several wigs of various style and color: from gray-haired to ognenno - red.
70 - e years brought to the world of hairdresses “cold chemistry“, and now salons are besieged by persons interested to curl “on koklyushka“ - and both women, and men.
Thanks to punks, to be exact them so to hairdresses, similar to hedgehogs and porcupines (the lock disheveled, sticking out extensively light), female heads began to decorate hairstyles “Cascade“ and absolutely short “Hedgehogs“ (as at the heroine of the movie “Winter Cherry“). And that the most surprising, such not ladies` hair was done women even more womanly (I apologize for a pun).
Since the end 80 - x years hairdressers (now they are called even more often stylists) began to apply laid on locks. The technology of their fastening to hair was developed by masters of the known London salon “Rustle“. When coloring hair all shades chocolate, fair-haired become the prevailing flowers red, chestnut.
The modern hairdress is a lack of the uniform direction, banality, uniformity. Made hands of today`s hairdresser or stylist (and not necessarily working in smart and expensive beauty shop) the hairdress gives us, to women, a rare opportunity to keep the identity, being oneself.
It is possible to speak about history of hairdresser`s art very long. In spite of the fact that at a profession the name repeatedly changed: the barber, the barber, the stylist, its essence it is necessary former - to help the person to become finer!