Antiquity music: what it was? About two Timofeyakh and not only Old I do not sing
, new mine - is better …
Away go, an ancient Muse!
(Timofey Miletsky, the poem “Persians“)
Musical culture in Ancient Greece - at the same time both a certain historical stage, and “childhood“, and top.
A stage - because this culture finds obvious communications with more ancient cultures of the Middle East - Egypt, Syria, Palestine (for example, psalms of the tsar David became a basis of a further psalmody, and the Ancient Egyptian temple rattle became a musical instrument - sistry). Top - because Ancient Greek philosophers and mathematics created the first full theory of music. The childhood - because fed on fruits of Ancient Greece further all mankind. It handed ideas and theories to Renaissance, and then and the 20th century.
But, unfortunately, it is impossible to imagine all process of antique music. If the sculpture can be seen personally, then in that, as for music, - it is only possible to assume. Only about ten fragments of Ancient Greek music in the notation of that time remained. But they - the first in Europe! And mentions of music, the works devoted to it - a huge number.
Music in life of ancient Greeks took the major place. Education of the person was not thought out of music.
In the Senate are whispered that Diodor and Terpnos better me play on a cithara. Tell me honestly. They play better me? At you the contact of strings is more gentle...
(Dialogue from the movie “Kamo of a Gryadesha?“)
the Cithara - an Ancient Greek string plucked musical instrument, on it were played only by men. Originally game on this tool was assumed only for the aid to singing. The philosopher Platon strictly specified: “ Application of separately taken game … on a cithara comprises something highly tasteless and worthy only the conjurer “ (Platon. Laws).
The singer who sang under a cithara was called kifared. At first the cithara had 5 strings, but then there was a musician - the reformer who increased their quantity to 11. Timofey Miletsky (apprx. 450 - apprx. 360 BC) was the famous singer - the poet - kifaredy . For it in Sparta took a dislike to it, expelled and as punishment ordered to cut off “excess“ strings. Issued even the special decree about it:
“ Timofey Miletsky, having arrived to our city, disgraced an ancient Muse … Invited to the competition devoted to elevsinsky Demetra it obscenely decorated the myth about labor of Semela with jewelry, thereby incorrectly nauchy the young man. Tsars … decided to condemn Timofey for it present: it is offered to cut off eleven strings of a cithara so that having removed superfluous, to leave seven that everyone, seeing a severe order of the city, refrained to bring in Sparta something useless that the glory of competition was never shaken “...
Judging about everything, Timofey was, really, a bright innovator. It is mentioned by Francois Rabelais: “ in the same way Ponokrat forced Gargantyua to forget all he was taught by former tutors to, - Timofey also precisely treated those from the pupils who took before lessons from other musicians “. (F. Rabelais. “Life of Gargantua and of Pantagruel“). Moreover, it is not excluded that he was an innovator and in poetry. Its verses extremely remind the Russian poetry of the beginning of the 20th century:
… The plane hit into a plane,
of Polosuya Forkiada`s smooth surface;
of the Leg having put on
In teeth of copies,
of Vzbychiv a forehead,
Were torn they by
history and finds of the poem of Timofey “Persians“ is Not less surprising to crumple
Pine hands of oars …. This most ancient Ancient Greek papyrus was found in Egypt in 1902.
The cithara was considered as the tool of god Apollo and was opposed to to an aulos - to the tool of god Dionysus . It is an important point. The concepts “Apollonian“ and “Dionisiyskoye“ (“Dionisizm“) were included into philosophy, an esthetics and psychoanalysis. And in antique times the whole festivals - bacchanalias - orgies were devoted to god of winemaking Dionysus (he is well-known Bakhus).
So, Dionysus had the musical suite. And the aulos was - one of the main tools. An aulos - an Ancient Greek wind musical instrument which, perhaps, came from Forward Asia. But the myth says that it was made by the goddess Athena, but it was not pleasant to it that it is necessary to inflate cheeks, she threw the tool. The aulos picked up satires by the name of Marsy, further - the whole big and drama history recorded in many works of art.
Since then on an aulos played everywhere: both during bacchanalias, and during funeral ceremonies, the aulos sounded also in military music, and in cult. Played on it also women.
in Timofey`s songs kindles, restrains passion !
(Alexander Poup, the English poet)
the best-known performer on an aulos was Timofey . This is not that Timofey who Timofey Miletsky (the performer on a cithara living earlier), and another - Timofey living at Philip and Alexander Macedon. Impact of music of this Timofey on the famous military leader is reflected in numerous literary works and painting. Allegedly and Alexander went to fight only because heard a military song of Timofey.
This history is repeatedly described including Vincenzo Galilei who was a composer, the theorist and Galileo Galilei`s father (1520 - e years - 1591). The same history is described by the English poet John Dryden, subsequently on this poem Handel will write music. With antiquity always so: you will pull one thread and you will extend a ball which to unwind and there will not be enough life. Huge layer of culture …
I was ripened by Timotya among singing clergy;
Flew fingers on strings;
As vikhor, a powerful ring aspired to heaven;
Sounded pleasure lira …
… Bakhus`s praise strings ignited:
“Approaches, cheerful god “ … approaches
(John Dryden “Alexander`s feast, or Sil of harmony“, the translation of Century. Zhukovsky.)
So, we got acquainted only with two tools and two Timofeyami. But not only they were great musicians. There were also other professional singers - storytellers - aeda. With them epic and heroic songs - rapsoda, anthems appeared.
“All on the plentiful earth to the living people are kind ,
All highly chestima singers; they were taught to
to Singing by the Muse; the noble tribe is lovely to it singers“.
(Homer “Odyssey“. A song of VIII) Terpandr from Lesbos was
One of the famous singers . About the island of Lesbos all know, even those who about other Greek islands know nothing. About Lesbos know, about the champion Terpandr - no. And he won at the pifiysky games Delphi, sang under a seven-stringed cithara. The Delphic oracle urged it to arrive to Sparta where the singer had to suppress national disorders. Certainly - the singing. Thereby once again the major role which ancient Greeks gave to music in all spheres is confirmed. Terpandr is considered the founder of music and lyrical poetry in Ancient Greece (the 7th century BC).
One more famous musician - the poet - Pindar (522 - 518 BC - 448 - 438do AD) . Played on an aulos, composed odes, anthems, drinking songs. Gods did not avoid to sing its verses. “Oh, golden lira! Common lot of Apollo and Muz“ (Pindar. Choral lyrics). Pindar was called the first of Nine lyric poets, his influence was huge. When in 100 years after death of the musician - the poet Alexander of Macedon (Great) went war to the hometown of Pindara - the risen Thebes, he ordered to destroy it to the basis, having left only temples and Pindar`s house.
Mythological heroes - Olympe and Orpheus were musicians also. The legend on Orpheus from Thrace and his Eurydice worried the millennia. Also will always live. And next time it will be possible to esteem about Platon and Pythagoras.