Antiquity music: what it was? Primitive society
If to ask the inhabitant of territories of the former Russian Empire or at least the USSR (the territory is less) - “Why the whole world without exception considers that there was a great culture?“, what answer will be? What it follows from? How it is possible to understand it? Unless will remember a school course of literature, and it is already good. Perhaps even, as still some “musical surnames“ will be remembered, except Madonna and Primadonny, but it resolutely changes nothing.
That for culture was that it gave to the world - hardly straight off someone will be able to answer. But at the same time there is also “equidistance“ from the European music. In a word, with music the situation is at the moment not very well. And it is extremely softly told.
And about musical folk art of the people (the people) at all at people representation extremely vague. It is sure that in the Ukrainian villages remember and sing some old songs, as for the Central Russia - here the situation is much worse.
- or the telecasts written well and “popularly“ it is not enough good books and radio. Recently there was a book of the English comedy dramatist, writer and playwright Stephen Frei “Incomplete and final history of classical music“.
The small reference
Stephen Frei (was born in 1957) is considered “the reference carrier of the English spirit“. Someone can know it on Oscar Uyald`s role in the movie of 1997 of the same name, someone - on Dzhivs`s role in well-known “Dzhivs and Worcester“. Someone could hear it the known nachitka of audiobooks (for example, “Harry Potter“). For certain there will be also readers of its prose. Recently Frei published the book “Incomplete and Final History of Classical Music“ (2007). It is translated also into Russian.
It is the quite good and sated with information book written by the fan of music for the same fans. Perhaps, purely English humour, but how many respect and love to a conversation subject is slightly superfluous! Love to music, including to the Russian, by the way.
Those who will decide to read Frei are good option in respect of acquaintance with this strange thing too - music. So persons interested can just read Stephen Frei`s book “Incomplete and final history of classical music“. But I would like to write the Full and not final history of music.
What is music? Why it is necessary? How we feel it? From where the concept “classics“ undertook? What was in Western Europe and that - at east Slavs? And what was in Asia? What occurs at the moment? It is possible to try to answer these questions including with your help. So, at first - from where?
Music - the coeval of mankindIs natural
, it is impossible to designate “beginning“. Not only “time“, but also “place“: everywhere, where there lived once primitive people, everywhere find also confirmation of presence at them of the first musical instruments. But how it is possible to judge what it was music?
Here, of course, there are more and more assumptions, but these assumptions quite have the right for existence. And now on our planet live it is primitive - a communal system the whole people. And their culture is studied. It is worth to remember that also the set of historical evidences of travelers, missionaries and all others who appeared in the thick of foreign culture remained.
Finds archeologists - too a big subject for researches. Stone plates - litophones, whistles, rattles and beaters, sinks - they are the first pipes, musical onions (where a bowstring - a string), flutes from bones and horns of various animals - all this the first tools. Early enough there was an onomatopoeia: for example, to singing of birds or shouts of animals. Sometimes the onomatopoeia could be just necessary during hunting or military operations, for conspiracy.
It is supposed that very much early there were also first songs: mother sang lullabies to the child, soldiers with production were met by special solemn exclamations, sang - cried on burials of the dead. Music was also a game component. Music often was a remedy for patients. Music was always closely connected with religious representations, it was part of all ceremonies and ceremonies. Music was also a component of ordinary life with its hard work, ups and downs. That is music just was always, it ripened in human life.
Also it is worth to remember that a huge number of languages of Asia and Africa relate to so-called tone or voice-frequency languages. In these languages the word meaning depends on height of the told sound (syllable). It is intonation not familiar to all of us in the heard phrase, namely “lexicon and grammar“ in height of the same syllable.
The rhythm had huge value. Here it is necessary to tell that there was practically no music “separately“, it existed together with words and dance (or a pantomime). The rhythm connected music and dance. And dance is already an element of the drama, personification of characters, some plot. And it, in turn, complicates a melody and words further. That is everything goes to further development.
Exclusively interesting conclusion which sometimes meets in researches about musical culture of primitive tribes. Generally - melodies minor (if who remembers, the minor is a “sad“ harmony). And the nature gives us a major (that is a “joyful“ harmony). There is in acoustics a concept “overtones“. This physical phenomenon connected with fluctuations of the sounding body. That is each sound has several additional sounds at once, the first 16 additional sounds matter.
And so: that a string that a human voice give the first overtones a major triad . The “history“ which is not thought up by some multiwise head, and physical reality and the law of the nature of which it is necessary to have an idea as it will be important and further.
The nature gives a major, and the mankind invents all story mainly in a minor (in this opposition a lot of conditional, but from this not less interesting). I have no answer - why so occurs.
However, there is at the whole people a so-called obertonovy singing (either obertonny, or throat) - to have an idea of it, it is possible to listen to the Tuva, Mongolian or Tibetan folk music. Throat singing - a separate big subject for conversation. And it is very ancient tradition and art too.
So, music of an extreme antiquity was included together with mankind into the following stage of development - and entered already with the first musical instruments, songs and dances. Any of the most ancient large civilizations did not do without the music. Ancient Egypt, India, Judea, China already had quite professional music and musicians at the order. In these civilizations there was also the first theory of music. And antique philosophers added to music and the mathematician.
About music of ancient civilizations it will be possible to read next time. And in comments it is possible to listen to songs of the African tribes and throat singing.