M. Bulgakov`s novel “Master and Margarita“: too thin polemic? The Familiar schoolgirl told
about revelations of the teacher on literature: “I began and threw - is uninteresting. And then learned that “Master and Margarita“ - the book anti-Christian therefore I also am not going to read it“. This fact does not prevent the teacher to lead lessons of the novel entering the school program and to be the best teacher of year in the small city situated near Moscow.
Hardly Mikhail Afanasyevich dreamed of such destiny of the sunset novel … the Pre-revolutionary intellectuals were oppositional
to Orthodoxy, but when Sharikov and Shvondera came to the power, Bulgakov, the son of the teacher of spiritual academy, as well as many Russian intellectuals, refused to serve new ideology. On January 5, 1925 he writes in the diary:
“Today specially went to edition of “Atheist“. Was with M [ishy] With [tone], and it fascinated me from the first steps. - What, to you glasses do not beat? - he asked the first young lady sitting at a table. - That is how it? No, do not beat (perplexed). - It is a pity (ominously) … Wanted to kiss him on his Jewish nose … Circulation, appears, 70 thousand, and all disperse. In edition the incredible swine sits … when I fluently missed houses in the evening of number of “Atheist“, was shocked … Salt in idea: Jesus Christ is represented in the form of the villain and the swindler, him. It is easy to understand whose is work. This crime does not have the price“ . (Bulgakov M. Collected works in 8 volumes. T. 8. The biography in documents. SPb., 2002)
Number of “Atheist“ which shocked Bulgakov was called “Cow“. From the explanation of edition: “Our magazine - the magazine country … therefore is written by us and about health cow, and how sorcerers and priests of people fool and cattle ruin“ . (Losev V. Comment / Bulgakov M. Great chancellor. Prince of Darkness. M, 2000)
From the program article of N. I. Bukharin published in the magazine: “… we impose on our requirements: cancellation of autocracy in heaven; eviction of gods from temples and transfer to cellars (malicious - to concentration camps); transfer of the main gods, as responsible for all misfortunes, to court of a proletarian revtribunal “. Bukharin is considered by a prototype of the large official Nikolay Ivanovich turned into a hog and saddled by Natasha.
The novel begins with conversation on Patriarchal ponds of two professional theomachists. Berlioz is not just the head of capital writers. In early versions of the novel he is an editor of the Bogoborets magazine. Literary critics consider by Ivan Bezdomny`s prototype the proletarian poet Demyan Bedny. The position of one wing of the Soviet atheists is reflected in Berlioz and Bezdomny`s conversation.
Exact judgment of the New Testament:
Jesus Christ never existed.
So was nobody to die and revive.
has nobody there was a Gospel to write.
(D. Bedny; Chudakova M. M. Bulgakov`s biography, M. of 1988) offered
of “Obrazovantsa“ more difficult schemes consolidated to the following: “ Some person, some image come into the view modern to it of historians, became object of obviously mythical stories about the embodied god “.
The most authoritative supporter, if Lev Tolstoy was not the author of this version. The Soviet power forgave to Lev Nikolaevich his county, declared the classic and began to publish 90 - languid collected works which included also “theological“ works of the writer. Bulgakov throws down a challenge to official ideology, but does it so thinly that novel plan depth much is still unclear.
In rhetoric there is a reception which is called reductio ad absurdum (finishing to the point of absurdity). Using it, Bulgakov becomes on the point of view of the opponents - atheists, but, conducted by their logic, comes to the absurd conclusions. In “Pilatovy heads“ Bulgakov, it seems, agrees with the main theses of atheism. His hero not god and not God`s son. He does not work wonders, does not prophesy, does not revive people.
The main message of the sermon of Yahshuah - “all people kind“ - is frankly derided by the author. Informers, grabbers, careerists and bribe takers - here the main population of godless Soviet Moscow against which it is possible to fight only devil riots. The master throws an image of the hero such strokes: “Yahshuah with captation smiled …“, “Yahshuah was frightened and told with affection: only you do not beat me strongly, and that already two times beat me today“, “Yahshuah slipped the drying nose and suddenly spoke on - Greek, stammering …“.
Bulgakov is not the beginner in literature. If he uses the lowered lexicon, so in it some sense is hidden. Then - one or the other. If Bulgakov identifies Yahshuah with Jesus Christ, then why he represents him in such ridiculous look? Really the person who on pain of repressions refused to write atheistic scenarios does it on a need of the heart? Or Bulgakov puts among themselves and the Master of a certain intermediary?
In 1932 the writer gives the novel the name “Black Theologian“. Work of this “theologian“ consists in production of a caricature on Christ. Bulgakov implanted eyes of common sense and scientific atheism into Voland`s eye-sockets. Modern to Bulgakov the reader in “Pilatovy heads“ learned methods of atheistic promotion. The official treatment of Jesus and devilish treatment of Yahshuah coincide - both “scientific“ atheists, and Voland convince us that deal with the idealist - the loser. (Kurayev A. “Master and Margarita“: for Christ or against? M, 2006)
Voland - the main character of the novel. In the appeal to “the Government of the USSR“ Bulgakov calls the book “the novel about a devil“. Dmitry Likhachev somehow noticed that after “Mastera and Margarita“ it is impossible to doubt existence of a devil - this image is so realistic. But “if there is a darkness - there has to be light“! (V. Tsoi) Darkness is not a physical shadow from a sword, and the world of the evil to which touch as Voland assures, is a condition of completeness of life. Light stays behind scenes because it was deserved by neither heroes of the novel, nor the city of the blown-up temples, nor the country of the shot scientists, poets, priests.
The person unfamiliar with the higher mathematics, cannot estimate beauty of a mathematical formula. Bulgakov wrote for the - for spiritual elite, “White Guard“. And today most of the readers unfamiliar with a context, perceives only the top layer of the novel with its satire and grotesque, “Orthodox community“ takes offense and protests - the acquaintance lowered library “Mastera and Margarita“ in a refuse chute, having found the daughter behind “pulp fiction“, than did not bring closer it to Orthodoxy...
It seems that the Master overestimated future readers. It turned out by the word of his hero: “ It, maybe, and cleverly, but is painfully unclear “. (Bulgakov M., “Master and Margarita“, M. 1988)