Rus Articles Journal

Prairies of the Arctic

THE ARCTIC PRAIRIES

A canoe - journey of 2000 miles in search of caribou;

of Being the account of a

Voyage to the Reion North of Aylmer Lake

by

ERNEST THOMPSON SETON

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(preface of originators:)

Singer Prirody: the writer, the artist, scientific

(To 100 - to the anniversary of the Arctic travel E. Seton - Thompson) Ernest Seton - Thompson is world renowned

as the writer - the naturalist and the artist. Its books are impregnated with love to the nature, they to many people helped to be created, having kept pure and careful attitude to people around us to animals and plants everywhere.

know Seton Less - Thompson as the traveler and the scientist - he did not graduate from the universities and did not defend dissertations. And still, exactly it is necessary to recognize him as one of founders of naturalistic ecology. To them (and still. - A. Fabr) drew attention to detailed studying of behavior of animals. Later this zoological science received the name of ethology. Seton - Thompson is the main scientific work multivolume “Life of wild animals“.

Seton - Thompson left behind not only books - but also followers, pupils - for example, the famous scientist A. Formozov (1899 - 1973) who, being 23 - x - the summer student, sent to the writer the first book with author`s drawings and the answer received: “The big future belongs to the one who whether is able to see and express what was seen in drawings, on pages of books … I hope that you continue your work …“

Seton - Thompson, having been born in England (on August 14, 1860), lived long life, and almost all his life passed in the woods and prairies of North America, like St. John`s Wort life from immortal works of Fenimore Cooper. Since the childhood in love with it the Nature opened the secrets and gave subjects for creativity. Ernest especially loved and knew birds.

However parents of the boy were unaffected by his hobby. In having many children and almost poor family education was rather severe. For example, money for books and many other things, being considered excessive, parents was not allocated.

Life of the young man began not easy, but persistent work always brings result - and often brings success.

Earnest became the artist, to it popularity came. He drew birds and wild animals, being convinced of the calling - to draw. However the real glory to it was brought by books - for the first time stories about animals were written so truthfully and brightly, with exact and profound knowledge of their behavior and a way of life.

of the Book of Seton - Thompson were published and republished hundreds of times. The most known of them - “Dominoes“, “Stories about animals“, “Rolf in the woods“, “Animals - heroes“, “My life“. “I knew tortures of thirst and decided to dig a well that from it could drink others“ - the famous writer and the naturalist premised these wise words to the book “Little Savages“ where it is told about adventures of two boys in the Canadian woods, about the most important of life of the wild nature and radical inhabitants of backwoods - Indians.

Contemporaries were surprised, opening for themselves the whole world presented by Mr. Thompson. It turned out that in one person talents of the artist and writer wonderfully are combined! And still - the scientist. It is, actually, rare gift.

Seton - Thompson always lived the nature. Also pined if it was long forced to live in the cities. The big cities of America simply oppressed him. Therefore he traveled much.

In the childhood he dreamed to see herds of the bisons roaming in prairies … Alas, dreams remained dreams - the wild nature in North America almost everywhere receded under the pressure of a so-called civilization, bisons and many other animals became rare or were exterminated at all.

But nevertheless when it already was 47 years old, to the writer and the artist was succeeded to achieve long dream - to see herds (let and small) forest bisons, reindeers to the Carib, numerous flocks of birds …

Stories about Indians with which it was necessary to communicate during travel, penetrated by a peculiar humour and alarm for the future of indigenous Americans, are full of respect for the Indians living under trying conditions the Canadian North. Seton writes

about exclusive honesty of these people, generosity - on the relation to each other. To white the relation other. Indians see in newcomers from Europe - newcomers from the East - debtors. White took away from them almost everything. And the main thing - the earth which fed them with hunting. The writer saw that the so-called civilization meant for aboriginals of America diseases, degradation of morals, poverty. Wise customs disappear, the youth forgets the history.

Seton - Thompson correctly estimated danger of the general Americanization of all aspects of life destroying outside - and, what is even worse, from within. Predicting, like O. Stepldon, aggressive Americanization of Europe and other world, Seton - Thompson warned: “Take care, Europeans! Through one hundred years you will be Americanized! “

It seems that the writer was the rights - both concerning society, and concerning “the environment surrounding it“ - the distressful Nature …

of the Book which were presented to mankind by great Ernest Seton - Thompson, imparted sincere love to the nature to millions, tens of millions of people, helped and help today formation of ecological thinking, so necessary for the solution of one of the major (if not most important) present problems - environmental protections.

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of the PRAIRIE of the ARCTIC

of 2000 miles by the boat searching to the Carib. The description of travel to the area to the north of the lake Aylmer

(Fragments from Earnest`s book Seton - Thompson) (Reductions and adaptation of the text - A. Ryabokon)

the Preface of the author

Kto from present young people would not give to

with pleasure year of life for happiness to untwist time roll on fifty years ago and to live year in the romantic past of the Wild West? For happiness to see great Missouri on which coast bisons are peacefully grazed the woods where probably - it is invisible any wild beasts where freely go and hunt red-skinned because there are neither fencings, nor even a hint on the power of the white person yet; in the same place, where they are, it is represented by only rare trading stations scattered in hundreds of miles from each other and people harness horses, float by boats or for months walk to exchange news.

Ya first would pay the tenfold price for pleasure to see the past with own eyes, but, having only lived half a century, thought that this miracle is feasible and today … The Indians who are not knowing a civilization still walk in far virgin forests and prairies and communicate with white only in the trading stations which are not connected among themselves by neither the railroad, nor telegraph; bisons, imperceptible for hunters and wolves, walk on a scope, propagate and breed. In these regions - millions to the Carib and elks, but people are as rare, as to Missouri in immemorial times. But all this not the West, and Severo - the West …

This thought also induced me to go to six-months travel by the boat. I found what looked for, and was rewarded a hundredfold by finds of which did not dream.

C. - T.

DEPARTURE FOR the NORTH

B 1907 I went to travel by the boat down the river of Atabask and its inflows to distant North - to the West of Canada where still the little-used woods remained, and further - to novel Arctic plains where, according to stories of eyewitnesses, wild reindeers to the Carib still were found.

my satellite was Edward A. Prebl from Washington, the remarkable naturalist and the skilled traveler, three seasons studying the territory from Hudson Bay to Mackenzie`s river.

Including the main goal of supervision for the Carib (I wanted to prove large number of their herds), I decided to collect in passing various natural-science material, to specify the coastline of the lake Aylmer which hitherto is a little studied and also to investigate the neighboring lakes.

Having gone to this travel for own pleasure and on own account, I could not convince of it the acquaintances working in the Company of Hudson Bay in any way; they were sure that I perform a confidential task of the government of some country, the museum or scientific organization.

in the Evening on May 5 we left Winnipeg. From here to the West on the train course we saw many proofs that last year was “hare year“, that is year when constantly fluctuating number of a hare - a white hare reached the maximum. Bark of almost all trees at the level of snow cover was picked. But we did not see any hare: they were attacked by “pestilence“ and, as usual, almost immediately exterminated all of them in this area.

the next morning we noticed herd from four vilorog to the South from the railroad. Then observed also other herds - only two hundred thirty two vilorog in 26 - and herds. All of them were grazed from South side of the railroad. It spoke very simply: last winter, when vilorog removed on the South, the Pacific railway company of Canada established obstacles from a barbed wire along all access road. In the spring this insuperable barrier cut off vilorog from their pastures, and they were puzzly pounded near a barbed wire. One herd from eight animals was frightened off at station by the passengers who are going out of the train, but, having run from half-mile, antelopes returned to a barrier again. They could not overcome the instinct driving them on the North. If an exit from this situation is not found, all vilorog in northern Saskatchewan will die out.

From Calgary we went by train to Edmonton. It was the last point of our railway route. From here the difficult way began, and we waited for several days until there arrive the equipment and products, and, above all until the river is opened.

In northern regions an ice drift on the river - very important event. Day when ice starts, marks the beginning of spring, and it is looked forward. Having learned

that it of Atabask was opened, we employed horses, passed 94 miles on beautiful, sparsely populated rural areas and early in the morning the next day of profit in Atabaska - Lending, the town, the typical boundary fort standing on the coast of large east inflow of Mackenzie. Down us long travel was necessary to this river.

We stayed at the central hotel of the town. Other lodgers assured that you will not find hotel in the world worse. At first it seemed to me that I used to know institutions worse, but recognized in the morning that my neighbors are right.

arrived our boat and provisions Meanwhile, but the big caravan of flat-bottomed boats delivering an annual stock of products to the Far North could not go to a way yet, and its help was required for us, and we postponed departure for four days.

the Unforeseen delay gave us the chance to study natural history of the district and to collect which - what material.

struck Me trees - giants. The typical black poplar reached, for example, hundred feet in height, having diameter more than eight feet (8 feet and two inches) in eighteen inches from the Earth`s surface. Above a poplar did not come across to me. Though I saw trees and with more dense krone.

In hotel together with us four police officers from division of mounted police too heading for the North expected a caravan. They had the senior my old acquaintance from Toronto, the major Jarvis. In the same place there was John Shott, the metis of huge growth accompanying Caspar Wheatley in Barren - Graundz * in 1895. It, apparently, was very much

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a footnote in the bottom of the page *

Barren - Graundz - literally, the translation from English - “barren lands“. So in America often call the northern treeless territories which received around the world the name of the tundra from the Finnish word “tuntur“ - “mountains“. On the Canadian Severo - the tundra West generally differ in stony soil.

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of high opinion on Whitney. John much all told me about the travel. For now I threw his portrait, it entertained me memories of the early childhood on the river Red - the River where he was born in 1841. I managed to write down which - that from his stories about these times historical nowadays. Its descriptions of the vilorog living on the plain Whyte - Hors in 1855 - m and bisons from Karberri (Manitoba) in 1852 shed light on ancient habitats of these endangered animals.

All travelers going to me to a desert Arctic zone Barren - Graundz, relied only on hunting, and as a result doomed themselves to deprivations, and at times even to starvation. I solved, without laying special hopes for hunting trophies, to take with itself more edibles - the best that can be bought in Winnipeg and consequently, and around the world. As you will see further, hunting trophies on which we especially did not count appeared in camp every day.

my boat could not contain such solid food stock therefore it I shipped the most part on flat-bottomed boats of the Company of Hudson Bay, having taken with itself provisions which would be enough for a week. This freight and equipments for camp gave to the boat necessary stability.

DOWN the NOISY RIVER WITH TRAVELLERS

on May 18 we plunged on the magnificent boat called by me “Ann Seton“. Atabask it was already completely cleared of ice and became navigable. The caravan from thirteen flat-bottomed boats with freight and team from 60 - and the person, Indians and metises, heaved out of the harbor of a fort along with us. Despite a strong head wind, we floated on the North with a speed of three and a half miles in hour

Metises stirred in French and in Indian languages of a kra and chippev, but when they wanted to swear strong, they stopped the sweet babble and passed to vigorous English - its sharpness and roughness of a pronunciation, plus abundance of strong epithets, obviously, filled long need of inhabitants of Great Desert Earth.

in the Afternoon our boat outstripped a caravan. We moored to the coast and began to make a dinner, and here I received (again!) lesson.

Arrived a vorotnichkovy hazel grouse and, having been arranged on the trunk of the fallen tree lit with sunshine, began to patter wings. Disappearing, I approached closer. The hazel grouse disappeared in the wood. Then I installed the camera in eight feet from a log, having stretched a rope in 25 feet and hid. Minutes through three the bird returned, having dismissed wings directly in front of a chamber, but, alas, the equipment did not work. As soon as I left shelter, the hazel grouse disappeared and did not appear any more.

Missed a happy occurence - you have only yourself to blame. Since then we heard a drumbeat of this bird more than once, but that the sun settled down too low, the hazel grouse sat under the dense shade, we were exasperated by mosquitoes, making impossible quiet supervision - the happy occurence, as always, did not repeat.

Having come to the Indian settlement of Pelikany Volok, we got over through the huge blocks of ice which are heated up ashore. Walking on a twisting footpath along wigwams, I suddenly noticed in the distance on a tree something white. Having decided that it is the hare who got into a silok, I approached closer and with surprise saw a dead domestic cat - extremely rare being in these regions. Under it, jealously transferring a view from me of the production, the lynx who became unproductive for hunger sat. I with myself had only a camera, it was necessary to return to the boat behind the gun. The lynx still roamed nearby. I do not think that she ventured to attack the child in the village, but nevertheless a lynx - a predator. I shot and it fell, without having made a sound. my first shot for many years - and only for all travel was

It.

tormented me Then conscience, but two old men - the Indian were in the seventh heaven, having received though a little fresh meat. They suffered stomachs from rough corned beef long ago, and they had enough meat of a lean lynx for three days. I sent a skin and a skull of an animal to the American museum. Having equipped with

expedition, I had to be her organizer, the geographer, the artist, Jack of all trades and even (necessarily) the doctor. Having armed with pills, plasters, bandage and strong laxatives, I was ready to give the first and last help to victims. From manuals of our family doctor I firmly acquired that the main thing for the doctor - importance in osanke, noble restraint in manifestation of emotions and absolute self-confidence at conversation with the patient. In summary form its medical credo sounded so: if you do not know that with the patient, do not give a sign, and begin with cleaning of a stomach.

This simple truth together with a stock to drugs got to me amazing popularity. My medical glory, and together with it - unfortunately - and practice. I treated absolutely free of charge.

Indians and metises addressed me with the illnesses and recovered thanks to faith in the doctor.

Soon came the Indian and complained that it broke a leg on which freight fell. The victim limped, leaning on the friend`s shoulder. The foot of a leg darkened and swelled, but I was convinced that the bone is whole - he could move with fingers and turn a foot.

- will feel better You in three days, and in a week you will be absolutely healthy, - I declared with unshakable confidence. Also began to mass a sore leg. On Indian custom, at the same time it was necessary to sing some song, and I decided that the Indian song “Heaps - Heaps“ - it most of all is suitable for medical procedure for a rhythm and became my shaman tune.

I here by means of never-ending “Heaps - Heaps“ and cold foot bathtubs my patient almost recovered in three days, and in a week was absolutely healthy. But in the north people have the special gift to compose tales. Soon across Atabaske there passed the hearing that at the Indian the leg was broken, and I cured it in only three days. I do not doubt that in one or two years you will be told that it broke a neck and not in one, and in several places.

The PERSON ON the RIVER

in the Morning on May 26 the team of flat-bottomed boats suited something like a strike. Oarsmen were able to pretend to be the jealous Christians observing Sunday when it was favorable to them. They firmly believed in what to work on Sunday - a sin, but it is possible to drink and play cards.

McDonald, the chief pilot, wanted, using rising of water on the whimsical river, splyt miles twenty downstream to thresholds. Oarsmen, plentifully flavoring the speech with the English curses, firmly held the ground - work on Sunday kind does not come to an end, it supposedly is checked more than once. They gloomy seated under trees, got cards and began to play. Lost cash, future earnings, clothes, the wife - everything if only to please the Lord and to salt to John McDonald.

John did not begin to contradict. He got into the boat serving at the same time as floating kitchen took all edibles and cooks, and buried to a current. Did not pass also five minutes as jealous Christians (having abandoned cards) by twelve remained boats diligently executed all commands of the pilot. John was unperturbable, but his eyes laughed.

Team did not take offense for the defeat - opposite, he rose in her estimation at once.

in the Afternoon we set up camp slightly above thresholds. In the evening I rose by the hill and from height in four hundred - five hundred feet sketched northern part of a canyon of the river of Atabask.

Arrived the first migratory birds. The spring this year was late for a month. On the earth moose traces were seen everywhere - the hope for successful hunting appeared.

the Mania of murder observed at many people - heritage of wild ancestors, and crew of a caravan is universal suffers from this mania. Everyone has a gun, and they scorch from winchesters in all live that appears on the coast or on water. Scorch while the animal or a bird does not fall dead or does not pass out of sight. That is why wild animals are not visible around. To observe life on the river, it is necessary to outstrip a caravan at least per day.

on the high coast appeared in the Morning two bears. In camp the usual alarm and desultory fire - fortunately, ineffectual began. on May 27 we approached

thresholds. Litl - the Cascade two feet high, and the Grandee - the Cascade, in mile from it, six feet high. Both are considered almost impassable, and the way of passing depends on a season and water level. In this regard the important ceremony which always takes place equally began. All 13 boats moored to the coast, and 13 pilots gathered on the coast for studying of a problem. They chose the unique place and the unique way of passing of thresholds then they dispersed on the boats - and then all 13 boats passed thresholds in thirteen different places in thirteen ways!.

Each pilot always arrives in own way. It is considered that thresholds are successfully passed if you survived - and are not passed if drowned. This time everything ended safely.

After thresholds I received the lesson which set me thinking.

On the river was lower than thresholds the well-known whirlpool where fish chukuchan was well caught. When we set up camp, to me three sailors - the Indian with news were that in a whirlpool is full of fish. They asked to borrow them the boat. Indians departured by my boat, and I with horror observed how they beat fish with oars - fine oars with thin maple blades. They returned with a rich catch of fish (weighing three - four pounds everyone) and two broken oars. There was so many fish their friends got that on one, and even on two chukuchan. Believing that as to the owner of the boat some part of a catch is due to me, I took one little small fish - and the Indian demanded for it 25 cents! And it were people whom I free of charge healed two weeks, without saying that they fished from my boat, having broken both oars! It was necessary to say directly to them many bitter, caustic and offensive words and to take away all remained fish. Indians silently retired.

Feeling of gratitude is not peculiar to these people - can feed them at own expense, shower with gifts, but take in head to ask though about small service, and they will tear off from you money - how many it will be possible. Watching Indians, I found out that they are very kind to each other and hospitable. And then I understood that the belief is the cornerstone of their relations with white that the white person is very rich, and is rich thanks to them, the Indians who allowed white to lodge in the country. Indians are poor and never receive the real remuneration, and therefore however many they requested from white, it is only a little bit of what from it is due.

Somehow, bending around the cape, we saw a lynx. She stately stood on the block of ice cast ashore and quietly looked at the coming flotilla. Faithful to the custom, oarsmen grabbed guns. Bullets whistled around it, without doing harm. The lynx turned and went uphill, turning around on each shot, wagged at parting a short tail and was safe behind a mountain crest.

On May 28 we arrived to the Fort - Mack - Mari. Here I got acquainted with interesting people - Christina Gordon, the chief of post office, and locals - Joe Byrd, the metis, the person of progressive ideas, and the former American citizen - the long bony Yankee from Illinois, the typical American from those who know about America little, and about Europe nothing at all. Despite gaps in education, Americans, as a rule, have practical wit and are successful in affairs. Externally local Yankee slightly - slightly reminded Abraham Lincoln and was an all-American. As he lodged here, for me and remained a riddle.

the American for years did not receive messages from the house and I did not meet the person, more greedy to news. The whole hour we sat on the river bank - he literally filled up me with questions, and I, whenever possible, tried to satisfy his curiosity. The American devoured every word and interrupted me only when the stream of my eloquence ran low. He reveled in details of ship-wrecks and railway accidents. The president Roosevelt and trusts, scandals in insurance agencies, Lynch`s court in the south, the fires in the West, slaughter, murders, horrors, a distemper caused in it a particular interest:

- Yes! And then that was? This on - our, it - god!

After I in a year stole hundred million dollars from a nu - York banks, burned ten big cities and forty five small, derailed two hundred expresses, bumped off the mass of people in Chicago, it, at last, broke through:

- It - god, this our way! This people! We will turn everything head over heels! The most mean European country, the most mean - and that through hundred will be Americanized years!

Think of it, elegant French and you, courteous, affable Swedes, and you, intelligent Danes! You had 100 years before full Americanization!

During swimming on the river showed us traces of stay and other travelers - gold diggers from Klondike of 1898. Sometimes it were winter quarters, sometimes - the curious tools left in forts of the Company of Hudson Bay, sometimes - expensive canned food. And everywhere we heard strange stories about mad gold diggers.

Speak, on Mackenzie, above Simpson, there is a hut where four gold diggers established a wildness record. They should live long winter in close as a hen house to a hut. Soon they quarreled, and the company broke up. Everyone took the things belonging personally to it, and everything, bought on the general money, they divided into four equal parts. The plate, the boat, a shovel, a lamp - everything were relentless and ruthlessly split into four parts, having received four heaps of garbage.

the Hut was partitioned off too. One of gold diggers had with himself candles. He hid them from the others and carefully veiled the corner that light of its candle, who knows, did not bring a consolation and joy to neighbors. So those also lived all winter in the dark. They did not talk with each other and to approach of spring silently, one by one, dispersed in different directions, full of hatred to each other.

DOWN the QUIET RIVER WITH MOUNTED POLICE

In the Fort - Mack - Mari was not known when there arrives the steamship. The major Jarvis received the order urgently to be in Smith - Lending and at once to solve all our problems, I bought the thirty-foot sharp-nosed boat from Joe Byrd and agreed with the major that we will take place the following part of a route with mounted police.

Searches of the skilled local conductor for a trip on the North were unsuccessful in the beginning. All, appear, were afraid of uncertainty. And I was pleasantly surprised when the young strong guy was - half the Scot, half the Indian of the tribe of a kra - having offered the services. Inquiring, we received confirmation that he is a good pilot and in general the guy hard-working. So Billey Lutit became the participant of our expedition - and I can tell that he worked with total dedication.

Later I learned that Billey was considered as the famous traveler here. Several years ago, when flood cut off a fort of Atabask - Lending from the town of Edmonton, Billey volunteered to deliver important dispatches there and passed on foot 96 miles in one and a half days though the most part of the road was filled in with water. Another time it did a way to 150 miles up Atabask in 4 days. I learned about these its achievements later, and at that time it was important for me that Billey was the excellent cook, the good cheeful worker and the sensible pilot accompanying us to the Biggest Slave lake.

of Atabask is lower the Fort - Mack - Mari represents the stately river width in a kind third of mile, deep, deep, pure. Its coast overgrew virgin forests from poplars, birches and fir-trees. The woods are not touched by either wildfires, or the axe yet. Here the human housing is not visible unless the Indian`s wigwam occasionally will flash. I quite could present that I float across Ohio 200 years ago. It is pleasant to remember sunny days and our spacious convenient boat which is smoothly sliding downstream the peace river. On water - spring peace and harmony, grace, ducks float. Abundance of food without what the northerner does not think of happiness and rest. The deep river granting us blissful inaction with which many connect pleasure of paradise because we, having thrown oars, go down stream with a speed of three miles an hour is pleasing to the eye, stopping only for food and a dream ashore.

of the Wood put on the green attire and were announced by ringing voices of birds. Mosquitoes - disaster of local places - yet did not appear, and in memory the radiant days spent on “northern Missouri“ remained.

Quadrupeds came across extremely seldom and therefore emergence on the opposite coast of a black fox excited all company. Then it turned out that it is the run wild dog, such a set here. She ran for us about mile, and even it is more, stopping sometimes to hunt on the fish lapping near the coast. When we moored and began to make a lunch, it crossed the wide river and lay at some distance from us. The next settlement was miles in twenty - a dog, without doubts, was starving, and I left her a generous entertainment. It with greed snatched on food as soon as we departed.

In the Fort - Mack - Kai we saw the boy - the metis who was amazingly dexterously shooting a bow. From sixty feet it got in bank from - under tomato juice. Missed extremely seldom and that is surprising, held an arrow in the so-called “Mediterranean“ way. Many months later I saw how the same was made by other boy. Locals told that Indians have kr and a chippeva identical style of archery.

that night we sailed far away downstream the river and chose the place for camp on the opposite coast - on own experience learned to be careful of the dogs marauding at night.

In this camp I was given a unique opportunity to show to skilled natives of the West how to extract fire friction of two sticks. I got the hand in this case long ago. It is the simplest to receive fire by means of a belt and a branch. Usually I use a balsam fir or a larch. This time I took a piece of wood of a balsam fir and a thin stick of the Canadian fir-tree as a drill. I received fire in one and a half minutes.

is closer by ten o`clock when I prepared for a dream, Prebl pushed the head in tent and told:

- If you want to have novel feeling - leave.

a Moment later we stood under high fir-trees and, peering into a dark on other coast, tensely listened to the new surprising sound reminding a gentle and high ring of a hand bell:

- Ting, Ting, Ting!.

the Hand bell sounded loudly, slightly hushfully, depending on wind, but is still rhythmical - two “ting“ a second. Never I heard anything similar, but Preblu an exotic sound a was sign.

is a love song of a rough legged horned owl *, - explained my satellite, - the Female

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a footnote in the bottom of the page *: Richardson`s owl, or the American subspecies of a rough legged horned owl (Aegolius funereus richardsoni) nests in Canada to the North to timberline. Length of a body of a bird - 28 cm. Its spring song which is poetically given by Seton - Thompson, reminds ringing splash of the water drops falling from height. There is an Indian legend in which it is said that this bird was in immemorial times the largest owl and very much was proud of the loud and ringing voice. Somehow time she decided to muffle song a falls sound. The similar impudence terribly angered Gitchi - to Manit (Great Spirit) and he in punishment made a bird small. And the voice it reminds a sound of a thin ringing of the falling drops since then.

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modestly hid on a fir-tree top, and the male flies around and sings. If the sound fades, so the singer is on that side of a fir-tree.

- Ting, Ting, Ting!. - the crimson ring, a love tune of the northern singer is carried.

What heart can resist against such tenderness, against such love?.

- Ting, Ting, Ting, Ting!. - it is distributed again and again, and it seems that the night sky vibrates. And suddenly, as if and it is necessary, other sound - a deaf hoot of an eagle owl - “okho - oh - hu - oh - hu - hoo“, - a bass, quite suitable for the duet, which is picking up the song rushed into a song.

Passes five, ten, twenty minutes - and the little singer sings everything. I go to bed, and at night often I wake up and I listen to its night serenade ringing in hrustalno clean air of a coniferous forest. Prebl, however, considered by

his singing quite ordinary. On Mackenzie he heard more skillful singers, their singing differed from a song of our soloist vysoty tone and modulations. And in my opinion, it was the most charming bird`s voice what I ever heard, one of the main impressions, from - for whom it is worth being started up in travel.

On June 1 it was so windy and rainy that we did not begin to set up camp. And I spent day, studying the fine wood of a floodplain. From coniferous here the Canadian fir-tree most often meets, I saw the splendid copies. The most typical - 118 feet, 11 feet and 2 inches high in circles, 3 feet and six and a half inch in the diameter. There is a lot of such high trees. The black fir-tree and the American larch grow on bogs, the pine prefers sandy and stony soils. The largest of deciduous - a balsam poplar. Its mighty troops was built a close formation along river coast and on islands where the fir-tree does not grow. Often also the white poplar painting a crimson dye slopes of mountains meets; its white trunks gleam marble through purple foliage. It is a lot of white-trunked birches, so big that they quite suit for construction pie. And two grow in impassable forest thickets - three kinds of a willow.

We continued travel on June 3. From the boat saw the lynx ashore who was thoughtfully looking in water. One of police officers grabbed the gun and shot down it. The poor thing starved long ago as the majority of predators in the north this year. She weighed only 15 pounds, though reached maturity. In her stomach the undigested remains of some bird and a piece of tawing skin in inch width were found and four feet long - it is obvious, the piece of a belt from a dogsled found a lynx. It is curious what she made with bells?

Soon we camped on the river Slave.

of the Reader can puzzle numerous names. In fact, Mackenzie, Slave, the river Pis and Unchaga - the same river, but, unfortunately, researchers gave it different names. On justice, it has to be called Unchaga from the Rocky Mountains to the Polar circle, Atabask has to be considered as its main southern inflow.

was shot one more lynx Next day. In her stomach there were remains of a red squirrel, chipmunk and northern lemmingovy mouse. The last is especially important, these are new data.

Width of the quiet river reaches nearly a mile here. Coast overgrown with pines … I do not know whether far coniferous forests deep into stretch, but locals consider that the best timber grows at the river. Here we often saw lynxes. They wandered about the coast or, standing at water, watched at us …

MEETING WITH LEADERS

To the East from the river Slave, according to eyewitnesses, several herds of bisons remained. Among the tasks received by the major there was also it: to find out whether bisons are found in these parts, to establish how many they remained and to specify, where exactly. When Jarvis invited me in this expedition, I did not begin to ask myself long.

First of all should have been found the conductor, and difficulties began here.

Through dealers we found for four Indians knowing where bisons are found. They, seemingly, did not wish to conduct somebody to bizony pastures at all. Dissembled, thought out all excuses. But the royal mounted police and the Company of Hudson Bay have the huge power and under pressure of the major Jarvis here and the representative of the Company venerable hunters unwillingly agreed to discuss with us this matter in a hut of Joseph who turned in language of a chippev into Susie. His full name was Joseph Bolyyo. The travelers who visited earlier in these parts warned all that Bolyyo`s tribe should be careful, and we were on the alert.

met Us gloomy silence. We felt the hidden hostility of the audience.

Jarvis is the friendly and kind person whom most of people considers ingenuous - soon proved that he perfectly knows Indians and their psychology.

- Gather us if it is possible to detain, - he whispered to me. Susie`s

understood in French and a few in English, but the others declared that they do not know other language, except a chippev. It was necessary to invite the translator. About as far as it helped us, it is possible to judge by the sample of negotiations which is written down by me:

- Here nearby are found bisons?

- Uag - find fault - uas - ki biskuon Kai - ah with a taa nip - ee - Wat - Chou - es - Kaye Nee - mine - ah. Kaye - the expert - about - uin sug - ee - meesh and - Mus - ua mousse - the Tat - e - torments ne - municipal educational institution - ah pe - torments - te - ok ne - mine - ah to Dana - conceal - conceal - ah.

Translator:

- It speaks “no“.

- What is the time it will be required that to reach them?

- Ne - mine - ah Mies - teas - that is apprx. Wye - Huy - about ai - ou - ok - and - Mang - ka - mousse - that is apprx. Mies - they are Huy cha - public educational institution of wasps - ki ua - Huy - about musk - ee - a sea - seep. Mas - kootch e - goot - ah - and - ou Mas - kootch ne - mine - ah torments - e - fights of Saky - te - torments Mas - kootch gakhk - Xing - to a no ne - mine - ah torments - e - fights of Saky - te - torments Mas - kootch dakhk - Xing - to a no ne - mine - ah gekhk - Kaye - uin - thaw ladies - boole - indlis.

Translator:

- It speaks “I do not know“.

… And so on, and so forth. Hour two we beat the air. Did not agree about the conductor, did not receive any information about bisons. In the end went home.

tried to resume negotiations Next day, but difficulties grew as if mushrooms after a rain.

of Kiya could not go with us or lend horses because pastures of bisons were in hunting grounds of Pierre Belqui, and Kiya considered that it will not be pleasant to the Squirrel. us could not accompany

of Protein because it was inconvenient to it to get into this business - began negotiations we not with it, and with Kiyy.

to Kirm overcame cannot. It, having got sick, too could not go.

hurt Susie the wife, and this misfortune so oppressed it that he could not leave the house in any way - in any case, without special medicines which would save it from rheumatism, melancholy for the house - and just from grief. Next morning the messenger from Kiyi reported

- the leader is busy with extremely important issue and cannot meet us. But in the morning the Squirrel will come and everything will be as it should be.

disappeared also the Squirrel Next morning, having transmitted through other Indian that he absolutely forgot about the important obligation - to transport bags with flour through thresholds and though to it such work not to liking, but he pledged the word and, so it is necessary to keep the word. It supposedly point of honor.

We discussed a situation with Jarvis and tried to remember everything that we heard about bisons and wolves earlier.

From Ottawa reported that wolves cut calfs and therefore the livestock of bisons does not increase. In Winnipeg they so grew bolder that they were accepted to one-year-old bull-calves. In Edmonton even females of bisons were endangered. In Chippevayana packs alien with North - the East allegedly joined local wolves and they cut young bisons, females and calfs. Wolves even of horses and dogs devour. Dark wolves from the river Pis and white from rocky open spaces Barren - Graundz allegedly conduct interstine bloody battles for possession of pastures of bisons. Of course, bisons less. Them there were no more than one hundred!

Is curious that nobody ever saw these sharp-toothed robbers, and that the few who well know the district, have large supplies of a pemmikan *, prepared obviously not from meat of an elk or to the Carib.

*****************************

a footnote in the bottom of the page: * pemmikan - the pressed powder from the meat which is dried up on the sun mixed with sour juice of berries and the kindled fat, foodstuff, peculiar northern “canned food“.

*****************************

the Major, having hemmed, summed up the result:

- Wolves, matter of course, cut bisons, and leaders of these packs are called by Susie, Kirma, Kiya and the Squirrel.

the nastiest reputation from all four had Susie - it was from notorious family of Bolyyo. And, nevertheless, only he one volunteered to accompany us in five days.

We accepted all conditions - found the person who agreed to watch his fishing net, supplied with food his wife for the period of Susie`s absence, gave a gift to Susie, doubled a usual payment, employed his horses, gave it rheumatism medicine, melancholy for the house and just melancholy, gave tobacco and, at last, promised a special award for each what was seen of a bison. Then gave one more gift and only then went to a way.

With BOLYo

At way we go to the WAY three together - Susie Bolyyo, the major Jarvis and I. We go astride, and Susie leads a pack horse with provisions. Now we had an opportunity to learn that for the person our conductor.

the Original biography begins years for 20 till the birth of the person. In the middle of the 19th century there lived a thorough bandit by the name of Bolyyo. Montreal seemed to it too quiet town and it, having hammered together a gang of perfect villains, “went on tour“ according to all Severo - to the West of Canada. Any local old resident can porasskazat a lot of things about him. I do not even want to tell what I about it heard. Alleged offsprings of Bolyyo are disseminated through all Severo - I Will sink down, and travelers, having returned from this edge, warn acquaintances:

- Be careful of Bolyyo, all of them are suspicious persons.

I now we are forced to entrust the destiny to the second - or to the twenty second - that Bolyyo`s son.

He is a typical metis - swarty, average height, thin and very vigorous though to it long ago for fifty. How old is he precisely - it is unknown. Whether 59, whether 69, whether all 79 - he also does not know, but precisely remembers that the second figure - nine.

of the Woman in the settlement claim that to it 59, men - that 79 or even 89.

Clothes on obviously worn Susie - most likely from some white tramp - everything, except the moccasins embroidered by beads. I noticed: whatever pathetic was the dress of the Indian, his harmonous legs are always dressed in beautiful bright moccasins.

Susie`s Winchester when it was not used for designated purpose, was located in a beautiful cover - suede, embroidered by silk. The winchester contained in a faultless state. Susie has no

Unlike the bandit - the ancestor, own children. But it grew up about dozen of strangers, homeless - just on command of the kind heart. Susie is the unusual personality - does not smoke, does not drink; I never heard that he talked smut. It at all not because he is not able to swear. Susie knows all five languages accepted in these regions, and his thought clothes in a certain ethnological scrappy blanket. A basis in it - French, rags - English, and jewelry - allegories, proverbs and sayings - languages of a chippev and kra. Chippeva besides - communication language in its family circle.

Me was struck by one more characteristic feature of our conductor - he very much made thrifty use of a horse. As soon as ruts and potholes went - and are expensive here almost everywhere bad - Susie dismounted, and the horse quietly went behind it afterwards. It seems that they were friends. And it “the gloomy villain“ to us was advised to be careful!

After the four-sentry march - is bright on the boggy lowland overgrown with the Canadian and black fir-tree, a white and black poplar, a willow, a birch and a larch, we reached Solt - the River, the charming pure river with slightly saltish water. Nearby in the wood the spring beat, we also decided to settle near it on spending the night.

Wandering near camp, on a burned site I found a nest zelenokryly chirka*. It was singed by fire, but ten eggs lay inside. Mother flew from a nest, clapping wings, and, pretending as if one of them is killed, tried to take away me from a nest. I covered a nest with a grass, and in an hour the bird returned to it.

that night at a fire I remembered the childhood in Manitoba. And then already bisons were very big rarity. How many times, having hidden on an old bizony rookery, I tensely peered through thickets of spring anemones into the prairie, dreaming to see brown giants.

*********

a footnote in the bottom of the page *

of Anas crecca carolinensis - the American subspecies of a teal - a svistunka, one of the smallest American ducks (weight of an adult bird from 300 to 350 g). At a male on a wing “pocket mirror“ is bright - green from the inside, barkhatno - black with external. Nests in the north of the continent, up to the Arctic districts of Canada, to the South meets (winters) in Iowa and California.

********* Once me seemed to

that I see them!. Then it turned out that it was herd of cows, but the feeling of pleasure remained. And now, in 25 years after disappearance of bisons, I look for them again. Whether my dream will come true? Really I will see wild bisons on their native pastures? It, as they say, is too good that it was possible to believe.

not to come back To the past. Time you will not force to flow back.

HUNTING FOR BISONS

the Way lay on the same marshy lowland where willow thickets were replaced by poplars and peaked fir-trees. Soon the rain began and we settled down on a slope of the modest hill under huge Canadian fir-trees. Waited until the sky cleared up, and again moved on the West.

the hilly district alternated Now with plains.

according to Susie when it for the first time visited these regions thirty years ago, there was a prairie here, and the wood grew only on hollows yes at water. His words are confirmed: high trees stand in hollows also now, and on flat places the young growth of an aspen and a fir appeared.

Sometime people will render habitable these magnificent places. Here honor herbs, trees, birds, soils and climate same, as in Manitoba. We found

a skeleton of a female of a bison, the increasing bones and a skull were in safety. Hour in two p.m. climbed a slope and left on a beautiful height where the woods alternated with open spaces. Numerous funnels about six feet in depth and to forty - in the diameter were remarkable line of the district. One of funnels had diameter in hundred feet, and depth - nearly 50!. Water in them was not. In one limestone exposures, in another - the breed similar to granite were seen. I took them for the idle geysers, but then defined that all plateau called by Solt - Mountain, is covered with such funnels. Salt is taken out by waters in such large number that saliferous layers intensively collapse. Deepenings which then, expanding, turn into funnels are at first formed.

In the dry woods a set of bear tracks, are seen bear tags everywhere. Almost on each high tree - the scratches left huge claws. And through each several steps - proofs that bears eat generally bearberry berries now. Susie`s

chattered unceasingly all road, passing from one language to another, but suddenly abated, having noticed bison traces. It instantly changed - now he is a hunter and only the hunter. Susie, having come off a horse, directed forward as if a hound. And, of course, soon found traces is fresher. Then - the dried pools where bisons come to roll, and near them - absolutely hot scents.

We tied horses in a superficial hollow and started hunting in due form. Jarvis remained to look after horses. Susie`s

defined the direction of wind, threw a bunch of a dry grass up, and we went on a trace. Suddenly he stopped and carried out by a nail on my canvas cape - the creaking sound was heard.

- Va pa, - he whispered, having left as usual from the phrase of “Cela ne va pas“ (in translation from French - “so it is no good“) one skeleton.

Having thrown off a treacherous cape, I moved forward. On the earth the set of new traces appeared. Susie was thrown from time to time in air by a bunch of a dry grass. He conducted me, having ordered to go on its traces and not to rustle. At first I managed it, but in the end at me under a leg the branch crackled, and Susie has a look at me with a mute reproach in eyes. Then the knot crackled already at it under a leg, and now I silently pointed a finger it sideways. We were stolen by

, showing the greatest care, without sorting traces any more, and through two hundred steps of Susie dropped to the earth and whispered, choking:

- Now do his portrait how many you want.

Ya crept up closer and saw not one, and … six bisons!

- It is necessary to approach them closer, - I answered with whisper too and spread on - plastoon to the bush which was steps in seventy from bisons. Tam I made by

the first picture.

Herd totaled eight or nine bisons, one bull was just to an ogromaN! Susie cocked of the winchester.

- not to shoot! - firmly I ordered.

- Why?! - the conductor was surprised, - Why we came here?

Here I noticed that, having turned a little aside, it is possible to creep to other bushes and to approach herd of bisons closer. - you Will frighten off

, - the old man began to doubt.

- Now you will see, - I answered. Having collected by

the whole armful of a grass, I covered the head, shoulders, and spread, proving to business that it is POSSIBLE. Followed Susie me. I safely reached new shelter and suddenly saw on the distant end of the dried pool - a bizony rookery - spring anemones! The cherished dream of my youth, ONCE was achieved, HAVING TAKEN REFUGE IN THICKETS of ANEMONES, I LOOKED OUT for WILD BISONS.

I silently rose Then and made the second picture.

Careful bisons, even more timid, than elks, or noticed how the armful of plants suddenly spread up, or just guessed us, but suddenly quickly rose and left. Here I for the first time saw a little red calf - means, in herd there were ten bisons. Susie, however, counted thirteen.

At a wood edge bisons stopped, but I did not manage to make the third picture.

With gratitude having shaken hands with the kind old man, I heard the answer:

- Last night I asked God to send us bisons. It is visible, mercy God heard my prayer and presented us this happiness.

In camp the old man let out that all leaders conferring with us and other inhabitants of a fort sneered at it and “his British“ - see what was wanted, to approach bisons moreover to photograph!

Soon Susie went behind water, but right there came running back with shout:

- Where my rifle? Give a rifle!

Jarvis gave it the winchester and Susie disappeared in the wood again. I threw for it a trace, and … Susie on my eyes one shot removed from a tree a she-bear with two bear cubs.

It fell, sobbing as the person: “Oh, oh, oh, oh!.“

Ya did not manage to stop Susie, and he shot down her, helpless …

Bear cubs - suckers could not do without mother and shared her lot.

Is probable, approaching a spring, Susie saw a she-bear with family. It made the warning sound: “koff, koff“. Bisons, elks and wolves were the only enemies of whom bears could be afraid. A reliable shelter - a tree. Bear cubs quickly scrambled on a high poplar, mother got with a trace. Susie came running in the camp frightened, and I rushed to it to the aid, sure that someone pursues it. Also did not manage to prevent the tragedy … Susie fried

that evening one of bear cubs, and, looking as old “cannibal“ eats around the pads of a bear cub similar to children`s hands, I had feeling of disgust and could not get rid of it several days. The major completely shared my feelings and to the conductor, to his great pleasure, all bear meat got.

In the morning I remained in camp, and the major and Susie were sent to search for bisons. I had a presentiment that not to find bisons it therefore I left the camera at myself and went to the lake which was to the West from camp. There I made sketches of animal traces, photographed. On the lake not less than twenty five couples of ducks - hook-nosed tourist`s sirs, shilokhvost, zelenokryly teals, gagara floated. I observed how I tokovat spotty ulit*: it approached the lady, having dismissed feathers and having raised wings. She, appear, did not pay any attention, but when he rose in air to the boyfriend, followed it.

was Seen by me and a green gremuchnik - a snake with two rows of red points on each side and is black - green strips. It was thick and clumsy - it is probable, the female who was going to lay soon eggs. It was later that it is the species of snakes which is very extended here and, in essence,

********** * ulit

belongs to a family of sandpipers, Totanus - Seton saw small slender birds is gray - white coloring with black pestrinka.

**********

only. And snakes even more thickly and more slowly are found in mountains. Their sting is dangerous, is frequent - is deadly. But, according to the conductor, “mercy God marked out a poisonous reptile a rattle on a tail“.

About ten in the morning I decided to return to camp, but in an hour it appeared not houses, and in some never-ending wood absolutely unfamiliar to me. Tried to be chosen some other way, but soon understood that got lost.

Well, is represented an interesting opportunity, I thought, once I wrote the management under the name “What Should Be Done Also What Should Not Be Done, Having Got Lost in the Wood“. So to do? Let`s remember own councils:

- do not lose presence of mind (did not lose, me it is even ridiculous).

- Wait for friends, they will find for you (does not approach: I have many cases, and friends will return to camp late at night).

- If you want to continue a way, come back to the familiar place (means, I have to return to the lake).

Was necessary to go back, to the lake, checking itself by the sun, and soon I noticed - I should forget about the reference point, I immediately EVADE TO THE LEFT. Having walked nearly an hour, I really returned to the lake, and then on own traces found ashore that place from where went to camp. This time I corrected the direction and in forty minutes was at home - in camp.

Soon were the exulting Jarvis and Susie. Bizony traces, according to them, are innumerable! They long pursued a huge bison with a female, and then followed in the tracks of the whole herd found by them near the lake. In herd there were four big bisons, eight females and four calfs - coevals and the two-year-old. Bisons admitted Susie and Jarvis of steps on 60, then gave the alarm and escaped. On the way back the major and Susie saw still an elk and a marten.

As I regretted that I did not give to Jarvis the camera - he could make such wonderful pictures! At two o`clock in the afternoon of Susie declared that it is time to remove camp. He believed that on old traces it is possible to come across other herd in North - east part of a plateau. The acute major suspected that our conductor actually just decided to come back home - it kept the promise, earned reward moreover stocked up with bear meat for the future. We acted as

at way in the rain. The rain was long - for all day and evening. And the next morning also did not try to hide Susie that at full speed rushes home.

U of Solt - the River I found that place where there was a wildfire. The small samochka of a zelenokryly teal still hatched out baby birds. In the fourth hour we returned in Smith - Lending, having spent exactly three days to ways. During this time we saw thirty three bisons, three very old bizony skeletons, four calfs - and did not see any wolf trace, did not hear wolf howling at night, at all did not find any proofs that wolves are found in these regions.

A our conductor - the artful descendant of the famous villains - was the kind, cheerful and affable person. He kept the promise and was satisfied with the earned reward. You can say about it that you want, but only if once again is led up me to visit these edges, I will be glad to use services of the kind old man of Susie.

SCOT ANDERSON

So, we returned in Smith - Lending with ardent desire to organize long expedition for studying of bisons in the big territory because saw only its small corner. We, certainly, marked

at the heart of extensive bizony edge. And again there was a problem of the conductor. This time it was less sharp - thanks to Susie`s stories locals like to us big trust and respect. While problems were solved, I carried out which - what researches.

Whatever you may say, and the most interesting creations - biped, capable to redden, and at me was a wide choice for their studying. The most remarkable of them - Thomas Anderson, the official of the Company of Hudson Bay knowing the area of the river of Mackenzie. Its office was in the Fort - Smith, in sixteen miles down the river, and in Smith - Lending it came on official business - it was dangerous to alloy freights down the river and Anderson received the order to transport them by land. Like most of his fellows on the Company, he is Scot. What remarkable opportunities this person had

as he learned a lot of new about locals - people and animals - and as appreciated the impressions a little! I aimed to write down everything that was of interest to me, and now in brief I state its most remarkable supervision from life of hunters and driven the North.

COUGAR. In the fall (it seems, 1879) the Indian trapper Ogushen found traces of a huge cat near the lake Varnish - a misinformation - Quincy. They came across to it all winter on the southern gulf of the lake. Once he happened to visit that place where the predator killed to the Carib. Having returned on the lake in March, Ogushen at last saw an animal. The cougar himself met requirements of the hunter. The animal was larger than a lynx and when walking wagged a long tail. Ogushen shot a predator, but was afraid to approach it closer, being afraid that it is an evil ghost. Anderson concluded that it was the puma, unknown to local Indians.

SEALS. According to Anderson, in days of old in the lake Ashkeek saw small seals. Kippev`s river flowing into Temiskami`s lake follows from the lake. Anderson of seals did not see, but local Indians told him that fifty years ago many seals were found here. The name of the lake “Ashkeek“ on their adverb is meant by “seal“. Seals probably wintered near nonfreezing water at thresholds.

POLAR FOXES. They were often seen on Kri`s lake. One - two was caught every year. From time to time they were caught near the fort. In east part of their Big Slave lake trade annually.

Winter of 1885 Anderson was given assignment in Nipigon. On the road the Scot had to inspect a fort of the Company on the river Albany. It should do a way to one thousand two hundred miles with the conductor - the Indian. In Nipigona the Scot employed other conductor which appeared by the patient - he coughed blood. In three days the conductor told:

- Time I promised, I will go, while I will not die if I do not find to you other conductor. In Uoabimige there lives one old man by the name of Omeegi, he knows the road better me.

of Omeegi, though was very old and weak eyes, agreed to accompany Anderson provided that they will slowly go. And they went to a fort on the lake of Saint - Joseph. The old man well knew the district. Sometimes, having stopped, he covered eyes with a hand, looked at the earth, then on the sky and sharply turned aside. He was man of his word and brought the Scot into place in due time.

In a year Anderson visited Uoabimige again and met the old conductor. That asked to present it a new shirt and trousers. In such clothes here usually get up dead men. Told Omeeg that will die when the sun ascends over the island, that is in a week. Laughed at the old man, but gave what he asked. In a week the old Indian dressed new clothes and told:

- Today when the sun ascends over the island. I will die.

Unperturbably smoking a tube, it left the wigwam from time to time and looked in the sky. When the sun ascended over the island, he laid down at fire and in a few minutes died.

of the Old man buried - to great indignation of his brother who learned about a funeral later:

- you, white men, live what is given rise by the earth therefore to the earth and you go, and we, Indians, we live what runs on the ground and therefore we sleep the last dream on trees, - he declared.

Anderson told me one more case of clairvoyance at Indians. In 1879 when it still served in Abitibi, from Montreal the sled train went usually on January 2 and arrived to Abitibi on January 19. That year the train did not arrive to the appointed time.

People worried, plans fell. Weeks through two Indians advised the Scot to address “sorcerer“ Mash - Kou - ty Ish - kuey. She was a woman of prairies, the Indian of the tribe chinuk from the lake Stewart.

Anderson presented to the woman tobacco. She conjured all night long. And next morning came to the Scot and told:

- the Sled train got stuck at a threshold where open water. Snow there deep, it is difficult to go, but tomorrow when the sun seems, it will be here.

Everything left as it predicted.

This woman was once married to the employee of the Company of Hudson Bay, gave birth to it to three sons. When the husband died of smallpox, it was granted lifelong pension. When Anderson addressed it, she was 75 years old. She confirmed the ability of clairvoyance more than once.

Here one more history from life of Indians, a sad story.

Somehow during a winter time the whole village of the tribe of algonkin near Uoabimiga died out forty or fifty years ago for hunger. Only the young woman with the small child survived.

She went to Nipigon where hoped to find the help. The woman hardly reached the small lake and found a hiding place on a tree. There was a bone fishing hook. She made a rod. But without bait the rod was useless. Cry the hungry child helped mother to decide. With one blow the Indian cut a piece of meat from own hip and, having done the same knife a hole in ice on a lake surface, got a bait on a hook. The excellent pike flattered on a piece of the bleeding flesh was an award of devoted mother. The woman fed with fish of the kid, ate itself and left still a piece for other bait. So she also lived at the lake, eating only fish, till the spring, and then safely returned to people.

End of history is less joyful. The boy grew up, having turned into the strong man, but soon cruelly managed with mother, having stopped it on an old age of years starving to death (and by that having shown the behavior absolutely not peculiar to Indians, and to rather predatory fishes). Anderson knew this woman and even saw a deep scar on a leg - the place where it cut out meat for a bait.

of Predanya of old times deep told to the Scot and in Ontario. he spent the night

In June, 1879 on east coast of the lake Bertsch - Leyk on the river Ottawa. There the Scot with the people met the Indian leader and his family. The leader showed to Anderson a small sandy bay where fight between his ancestors from the breeding union of algonkin and the mohawks ransacking in vicinities came davny - long ago.

scalp Hunters prepared for predatory attack. They extended pies on the coast and kindled at night a fire, having begun the aggressive dancings around fire. Three algonkin from the lake Grandee - Leyk, ancestors of the leader who met to the Scot, watched dance of enemies from shelter. One of them took a sharp silicon knife - Indians during that time had no iron knives and tomahawks yet - swam up to enemy boats and did big holes in the bottom of everyone pies. Then, when it returned to companions, all three dispersed in the parties and, hidden by bushes, began to rustle and shout at different voices. Mohawks, having decided that they were attacked by a great number of soldiers, ran up to the pies and, having pushed off them in water, quickly removed on the deep place. The pies filled with water went to a bottom, mohawks had to float to the coast. Algonkina interrupted their one behind another, having left in live the last. They gave to the captivated food scalp hunter to the road and sent to mohawks with the prevention: so will be with everyone who will dare to lay a warpath on the earth of algonkin!

It is better to tell MOSQUITOES

at once that made the life of us miserable and not to come back more to this subject.

All visited this country agree that mosquitoes - a terrible misfortune. The captain Bek in 1883 noted that bloodsuckers exhaust travelers in the north. Hutchence wrote over hundred years ago that in the summer in fruitless deserts of the North (Barren - Graundz) people do not have life from these midges.

Ya read these traveling notes earlier, but still itself did not visit these regions, could not understand the predecessors.

Over bed curtains of their my bed curled to one thousand. Day and night air vibrated from mosquito buzz. But it was only the beginning of summer. On July 9 on the river Nyarling mosquitoes behaved with brutality more. Here that is written down in my diary: “I counted not less than four hundred mosquitoes which stuck into a back of Billey sitting before me on oars. It is approximately so much them was on a hood of the raincoat covering his head and a neck it is slightly less - on hands and legs. Around - clouds of the mosquitoes which - are buzzing, stinging, monotonously hooting. They - a real handful for all of us. The major Jarvis - the fresh, ruddy, the very picture of health, fat man weighing over two hundred pounds - with mine (more true, with mosquito) the points of view, magnificent “pasture“ in comparison with the smoked Indians. Where sit down - you will be full, and about ten inflated bloodsuckers sit at it on a face and a neck, precisely red currant. He claims that he does not feel their stings, and laughs at my mosquito net. Mosquitoes indeed do not damage its health and good mood at all. I am very grateful to Jarvis for his excellent tastes, for the fact that mosquitoes prefer him to all of us“.

To Solt - the River could slam with one blow one hundred mosquitoes, and sometimes they so densely stuck around a horse that could not be defined what it colors. After a while they became even more. On six square inches of the tent I counted 30 mosquitoes and as density was approximately identical, estimated that 24 thousand sat on tent and as much curled at an entrance. Though we also killed with

mosquitoes, their number did not increase, and aggression - too. They reminded me the gold diggers who are torn to Klondike. There came thousands, the majority perished for hunger and cold, only one of ten thousand managed to be chosen live with desired production from there, but everyone believed that he is fated to become this lucky, and did not give up.

Write that mosquitoes seldom fly away from native places. Perhaps, it is also truly told about pathetic degenerates from New - Jersey, but northern mosquitoes proved the ability to distant flights more than once. To them cold and wind at all.

on July 21 we set up camp on an island of the Big Slave lake. The stony island of a quarter of mile was in the polumil from the neighboring islands. Nevertheless mosquitoes there was an infinite quantity. Like all other mosquitoes on light, they were out for blood. Even brought down and crippled, having collected the last forces, they stung us with the same rage. Every day they were ferocious more and stronger, and we understood that any adjective on light does not give an idea of a mosquito nightmare. I invented a way of determination of scale of this disaster. Having extended a barefaced palm for 15 seconds, I counted number of bloodsuckers on its back. Their number increased every day. In their bizony region was from 15 - and to 25 - and. at the beginning of July on the river Nyarling - from 20 to 40. at the end of the month on the Big Slave lake - from 50 to 60. but when we reached Barren - Graundz, open for all winds, and cold lakes, once you extended a palm for only 15 seconds, right there stuck a sting into it from hundred to 120 - and mosquitoes.

of Nothing surprising that people do not lodge in this mosquito hell. And still it is not necessary to think that here everywhere equally there is a lot of mosquitoes. They, undoubtedly, gather in a swarm and fly for people and animals who are seen and felt. Perhaps, to us all mosquito population from the big territory was flown. Having got out of bush thickets