How the lead “looks“? Excursion in “the museum of journalism“
the Lead, the leader - words in English single-root. “The developed subtitle“ is urged to head battle for attention of the reader that stories are farther, farther, with every word, forcing to read news or a sketch, a note or the feuilleton. In other words, depends on a lead whether the reader will pass to “body“ closer, quite so, in English - body (case), Russian “text“ is called.
On the one hand so, and - so
Different sources argue with another:
cannot teach to write a lead, anyway it will be work on a template. No, it is possible to teach craft and it is necessary;
the lead, as a rule, is 5 - 6 offers. No, it is enough 1 - 2, and the reader will understand everything (“all“ - it will read further or will go to have a bite);
various classifications, or types of leads exist. No, if them to begin to list all, then it is possible to come to several tens and to get confused finally;
the given examples will help to understand, properly / it is not necessary to write a lead. There is no sense to give examples, otherwise the journalist will cease to think creatively.
A to us could not be “lost“, we are not burdened by special knowledge of the theory, comprehended not everything in practice, but we like to read prose and verses, we try to write texts therefore we slowly will walk on “the museum of journalism“ - we will admire exhibits. Rigidly we lay
it will be easy for h2 to deal With two first “copies“ because concepts these not incredibly difficult in itself: “rigid“ (hard news) news and “soft“ news .
We include imagination and we represent the turned pyramid. We throw out / pour out / pour out in a lead on the reader practically everything that we have in a stock (we will specify: 70%), and then, in the text, we detail (the remained 30%). It is important to note that the principle of “the turned pyramid“ gains a bit different value concerning Web - the text. In specialized recommendations it is emphasized: “Each structural unit of Web - the text has to be self-sufficient and not send the reader to already read, for saving of time and money“. Small remark: it is considered that this principle rather bothered the reader (in “museum“ long ago!) . One “not“: we do not encumber a lead, thoughtlessly turning it into a lead - “hanger“. Nobody cancelled a consecutive and logical statement. “the six of servants“ comes to the rescue. Someone in the first, and someone - for the hundred first time will re-read R. Kipling`s rhyme in translation from. Marshak, the giving that gold key, or a method, in the journalist`s hands:
I have a six of servants,
And all that is seen by me around, all
is Known by me from them.
They on call to my
Are in need.
Call them As? and Why?
Who? What? When? and Where?
I on the mountains and on the woods
Send faithful servants.
Then I work, it I give to
Another known names of a method - 5W1H , from the English words - questions: What, When, Why, Who, Where and How.
If you consider that in news the personality is more important, begin with the answer to a question “Who? “ You think, the event nevertheless is more important? - then at first there will be “What?“ There is an opinion that in Post-Soviet journalism among leaders the question “When?“ the place of an event is allocated - use the answer to the question “Where?“ to motives and the reasons for which the event took place to be, the question “Why?“ will answer the answer to the question “How?“
will bring to the forefront an image of action... and it is soft - tooSuch news is less operational
and demands to itself other approach. We use “special leads“ . In the imagined museum of journalism we will visit several halls:
for mind. Here leads are collected: analytical, consecutive, interrogative, long (postponed), quotation, single, statistical, fact-finding, retrospective, philosophical, summarizing;
for emotions. Leads will force to admire and admire us: drama, syurprizny, contrast, teasing, comical, a lead - a throw, a lead - an umbrella, a lead - a capsule with effect of explosion, a dynamic lead - a staccato, the shocking lead - a riddle, a lead - the theatrical note (for sketches), a lead - a joke.
the Composition of a lead can become for you a peculiar sport. You can practise, finding new turns and the courses, aspects and accents. It is possible to rewrite a lead indefinitely. And still, once it is necessary to stop. David Randall in the book “Universal Journalist“ advises: “... if is available at once two (and even three) opinions on the subject of how to write the first paragraph, that is whether a way to help business? Fortunately and. Many years ago to me gave one advice which I consider as the most good advice from all, ever received. It is called “A parable about the friend on the hill“ and sounds so:
“Imagine that you walk in the country and in the head of you - all information on a certain plot. Suddenly you notice at top of the hill of the friend, it will be interesting to them to hear your history. You run to it, all are higher and higher and when you reach it, you have breath only on one phrase then you will fail flat-out. What words you blurt out? This is a lead“.
“The museum of journalism“ knows the mass of the most interesting leads - finds. Many are made for a long time, last century, others appear today. Let`s look narrowly in more detail at some.
The correspondent of the Polish news agency who appeared on the scene together with the Soviet colleagues notified on capture of imperial office in Berlin not as others, - began the message with “excess“ words: I write these lines on a desk of Hitler … And, thereby, was allocated from all.
On July 28 this year in the intriguing lead it was reported: “The Australian group Empire of the Sun - one of the most successful bottoms - projects of the last years goes to Moscow. “Poster“ talked and a half Empire of the Sun Luke Steel“. the news Published the other day with the shocking lead - a riddle is given to
one phrase: “Beer was allowed to sell in kindergartens“. It, certainly, will intrigue the reader. At the same time 1 - y the paragraph did not tell of the main thing:
It seems that the Russian authorities hurried with introduction of restrictions for beer sale. As lawyers found out, in the new law on regulation of production and turnover of alcohol there is a serious mistake. only 4 - y the paragraph explains
the Mistake of legislators consists in what they forgot about the old law on turnover of beer. It became invalid still on July 22, and now it turns out that the whole year sale of frothy beverage will not be regulated at all. In other words, it can be sold though in kindergartens.
A everything once already was. One of military reporters somehow began with
the article: “This morning I washed red wine“ , and only then reported that the division in which it was just fought one of large vineyards off Germans.
Yes, quite so. Writing of a lead for many journalists is so difficult task that it is urged to console upset with the nonprofessionalism the fact: it in general, always, almost at all the weak place! Or you began to write with a subordinate clause, or confused the reader the quote, or stretched the first paragraph, or simply a lead “is too cliched“, or you could not avoid philosophizing and excessive picturesqueness, and therefore the informatsionnost was lost...
In any museum there is always a masterpiece around which curious by all means gather. So let in our “museum of journalism“ also your exhibit - a unique, unique lead will appear!