MP - 18. How the first-ever submachine gun was created?
“In submachine guns the task to give machine-gun fire at fighting collisions in short distances when in stronger rifle cartridges there is no need is brilliantly resolved“ . Fedorov V. G. “Rifle history“, 1930
Traditionally is considered that the first mass MP18 submachine gun was created by Hugo Shmayser and was for the first time applied by the German army at the end of World War I. It and so, and … not absolutely so.
The first united a machine gun and a pistol cartridge everything - not Germans, but Italians. In 1915 the major Abel Revelli (Bethel Abiel Revelli) designed an easy machine gun of Villar - Perosa M1915 under pistol the boss Glizenti (9õ20 mm). Rather bulky design represented a sparka (double-barreled gun) from two machine-gun trunks with shops above and aim adaptation between trunks. Rate of fire 3000 (three thousand!) shots in a minute. Rate of fire huge for those times! At first this machine gun was going to be used as aviation, but from - for small flying range of a pistol bullet they were quickly replaced with machine guns with the rifle boss.
But the Italian military specialists in sabotage operations paid attention to these machine guns. These machine guns began to be used widely by mountain and diversionary parts of the Italian army. Then the automatic carbine under a pistol cartridge of Beretta M1918 was created (obr. 1918) Tulio Marengoni`s systems. It represented, in fact, one of Villar machine gun receivers - Perosa added with the rifle trigger mechanism and established in a wooden box. Though, in fact, there was it not the submachine gun (the easy and short automatic weapon under a pistol cartridge), and it is rather “a revolving rifle“. It was created for single firing, for automatic firing from such rifle the second trigger was in addition put that strongly complicated a design and reduced reliability.
And here the first mass submachine gun was created really by Hugo Shmayser.
History of creation of this weapon such is. When Germans in trench war began to use tactics of “assault groups“ - break of sectors of the front by specially prepared mobile groups, there was a problem of arms of these “attack planes“. The long rifle or heavy machine guns did not suit for application in narrow trenches. The long-barreled gun “Automatic pistol“ was the first arms of assault groups (Lange P. 08) with round shop on 30 cartridges and the fastened butt. This design, in - the first, could not provide the high density of fire as the gun single shots shot, in - the second, the butt at blow jumped out from grooves. Therefore soldiers from assault divisions, except the gun “Automatic pistol“, were armed also … with heavy bludgeons, them fought if cartridges came to an end. Hugo Shmayster cleaned all these shortcomings, under standard shop of the gun “Automatic pistol“ he made the mechanism for maintaining automatic fire, extended and closed a casing a trunk and placed this mechanism in the strong wooden box suitable for hand-to-hand fight.
So, MP18 . First-ever mass submachine gun.
Automatic equipment of the weapon works due to return of a free lock. The shop is adjoined at the left. Shops as from the gun “Automatic pistol“, and specially developed for this weapon approach. The sight of open type has two provisions: on range of firing to 100 meters and on range to 200 meters. Front sight and cut triangular. A safety lock from a casual shot - cross cut on a receiver where the lock handle is started. The submachine gun had a wooden box with a butt and the receiver of a cylindrical form passing into a casing of air cooling of a trunk. The trunk was located in a steel casing with openings for acceleration of the cooling and protection of hands shooting from a burn the heated trunk. MP18 could conduct only automatic fire.
Originally the submachine gun was made under round shop like “snail“ which was also used in the gun “Automatic pistol“ (Lange P. 08). The shop was inserted into the special adapter to exclude possible damage of a lock of the weapon. At the beginning of 20 - x years (20 - go centuries) in police modification of MP18/1 they were replaced by direct box-shaped shops with a capacity of 20 or 32 cartridges. In the rectangular shop developed especially for this weapon there is a number of openings through which the quantity of ammunition is visible. Makes replacement of shop and a platoon of a lock of arrows the left hand that significantly accelerates reloading.
“ during World War I after the first two years of military operations the western front stiffened in position balance. The gun-fire and bayonet attacks led to huge losses of the parties. In 1917-1918 Hugo Shmaysser developed the automatic weapon allowing a message automatic fire on distance to 200 meters. This MP - 18 was the main arms of fighting groups which broke through the front in March, 1918 (“offensive operation of Michael“). This tactics in the field of infantry is in the spiritual plan a predecessor of armor tactics of World War II “. Source: Wikipedia.
These submachine guns made such impact on the opponent that under the Versailles contract of army of Germany it was forbidden to have the automatic weapon in general. Production MP18 was stopped at once.
However in 1921 Hugo Shmaysser passed to work into firm “K. G. Henel“ where arranged production of the police MP model - 18/1. This modification had the inscription “Shmaysser`s System“. In 1928 this model was modernized (the shop with cartridges was inserted not at an angle, and perpendicular to a trunk) and received the MP index - 28/I. They say that during World War II the Dutch battalions which the first the allies who landed to Europe faced during opening of “the second front“ armed with this weapon. Since then all German submachine guns of times of World War II began to call “Shmayserami“.
But during World War II by Hugo Shmayser were developed only the MP41 submachine gun with a wooden butt and the assault rifle StG. 44 (Sturmgewehr 44), so MP38/40, unlike German “automatic machines“, which are well-known according to movies about the Great Patriotic War.