Than day in orthodox and national calendars is significant on August 11?
In orthodox tradition are esteemed on August 11 the Saint martyr Kallinik who was born in Cilicia whether in the third, whether in the fourth century AD, was brought up in Christian belief, and having matured, went through towns and villages with sermons, did not reach yet galatiysky Ankira where stayed long enough.
Here he was arrested, brought to the governor Sakerdon and after interrogation for refusal to address in pagan belief is subjected to cruel tortures: he was beaten with volovy veins; having suspended to a tree, planed a body iron nails; and then put in iron boots with soles in which nails by edges inside were built in. The Saint courageously transferred all tortures and even a prayer created a source when travelers were exhausted from thirst. When arrived to Gangry, put Kallinik near the flame of the furnace, and he, without order or a physical abuse from torturers, entered fire.
However Kalinov day (Prophetic Kalinov day, Kalinnik, Kalinniki) in a calendar national existed in Russia since more ancient times. And it was called so in honor of kalinnik, red lightnings, posverkivayushchy at an evening dawn. The sacral sense of this day consisted in the Funeral feast ceremony during which farewell the deceased, missing or not interred with observance necessary rituals were carried out.
Was considered that the kalinnik observed on August 11 - no other than means of collecting restless souls by the goddess Zarey sending them to Eno. It was supposed that smother not buried properly or “zalozhny“ dead men are very active waiting for this collecting. That is why Kalinnik called also Day of ghosts. On the other hand, “in the evenings and at the nights the kalinnik threatens with summer lightnings, sends autumn thunder-storms“. No wonder that in national consciousness and the name of Saint Kalinnik was transformed to “Kalinnik“.
From the natural phenomena (first of all, in northern districts) paid attention also to whether early frosts, pernicious for a bread harvest will appear suddenly. Sentenced: “carry by, My God, Kalinniki to troubles (that is fog, dampness), but not a frost“. There was a belief: “the guelder-rose will not jam, and Lupp (on September 5) will not peel off“; “if on Kalinov day is not frosts, and Lupp will not freeze“; “Kalinnik heats - air freezes“. The relation to fogs this day was ambiguous: “Kolya on Kalinniki fogs, lay up braids about oats with barley“. And here for the bee people they were adverse.
In many places kalinnik - pies with a guelder-rose baked. V. I. Dahl, for example, described such recipe: “Shchepot of a guelder-rose will be wrapped in rye dough by the hostess pie, will straighten, will swaddle a dry cabbage leaf - and on a baking sheet, in the furnace - on free spirit, let potomitsya and will fry. And as bread will pull as will begin to smell a delicacy - open the gate, take out ready kalinnik. The leaf cabbage otryastsya - and here it, pie with Kalinka, with sweet, with a forest musty smell!“. Other way was in that to knead dough on a guelder-rose and to bake in the form of pie. Sometimes added carrot to a kalinovy stuffing.
Besides, the guelder-rose was pounded with honey. For this purpose berries (1 kg) poured sugar (300 g) and put for 5 days to the cold place, and then added honey (100 g).