Than amorphous metals are remarkable?
Special group of metal materials are amorphous metals. It substances with a characteristic structure which is close to structure of the melted metal or glass. Noticeable streamlining in amorphous metals extends only to several interatomic distances, as at usual glasses. Metals acquire such structure when cooling with a speed more than 1 million degrees Celsius a second.
Amorphous metals drew the strengthened attention of scientists since their opening in 1960. An alloy gold - silicon was the first of the received amorphous metals. Then it was succeeded to receive in an amorphous state not only alloys, but also many pure metals, including iron, aluminum, chrome, nickel, vanadium, germany, etc. For this purpose cooling speeds to 10 billion degrees a second were required.
However the amorphous condition of pure metals is unstable - when heating crystallization begins. Much more steadily the alloys containing such transitional elements as nickel, palladium, zirconium, lanthanum, and also some nonmetals - silicon, pine forest, carbon, phosphorus.
The alloys corresponding to a formula M 80 And by 20 where M - one or several transitional metals, And - one or several so-called amorfiziruyushchy elements added for stabilization of amorphous structure are most easily formed. For example, alloys of Fe 80 are known to P 13 for B 7 , Fe 40 Ni 40 S 14 B 6 , etc.
apply dispersion of a stream of metal To ensuring ultrahigh speeds of cooling of fusion by cold gas or liquid, “launching“ of drops of metal on the cooled surfaces of metal plates or quickly rotating drums, radiation of usual alloys the laser, etc.
Now amorphous metals receive not only fast cooling of fusions of metals, but also their sedimentation from a gas phase on a cold surface, allocation from solutions and fusions with electrochemical methods, cathodic dispersion and by many other methods.
Thanks to characteristic structure amorphous metals possess a number of special characteristics: they become several times stronger, modules of their elasticity, electromagnetic properties change, resistance to corrosion increases. Contrary to usual glasses they show noticeable plasticity.
These properties define the special place of amorphous metals among other materials and draw to themselves attention of experts. They represent promising materials for equipment of the future.
It is possible to make new high-strength composites for application of them them in aircraft and astronautics. The amorphous metal materials possessing high corrosion resistance use for various chemical and magnetic filters, chemical vessels, electrodes, as sheetings in installations for production and processing of natural gas and oil.
The considerable share of losses of the electric power by its transfer is the share of transformers. The new materials for production of cores of transformers created on the basis of amorphous alloys allow to cut these losses by half. The amorphous alloys which are possessing necessary magnetic properties, but badly carrying out electric current therefore in the core of the transformer manufactured of such alloy there are no vortex currents absorbing energy are developed.
The interest shown by experts to amorphous metals is caused also by the fact that they are much cheaper than the traditional materials which are carrying out the same task (if such materials in general exist). The most intensively amorphous metals investigate in the USA, Japan, Germany and Great Britain, and in the last 20 years began to study them in all industrial countries of the world.
At the beginning of 1981 in the USA the first plant on production of tapes from amorphous metals with output about 2000 tons per year is put into operation. Now there is a lot of such enterprises. Interest in amorphous metals grows. The number of publications about them passed for several thousand a year and continues to grow. The problem of development of cheap industrial technologies is on the agenda.