In Ivan the Terrible`s rooms. How many secrets in the Aleksandrovsky settlement? Part 1
infrequent cases of completely safe cities Meet in the Central Russia. It is really a rarity that did not burn, did not destroy, did not bomb. Alexandrov treats such special towns: bypassed its almost all invasions with the troubles. Only Poles passed - plundered in 1609 - 1611, and so - neither Napoleon, nor Hitler managed to reach the city, despite its proximity to Moscow. Even terrible civil war passed without consequences for the city and citizens. And in revolution the well-known complex of the Imperial residence and convent did not suffer - quickly enough there organized the museum.
I have an opportunity to tell about this town in more detail, it is a little “from within“. There is an interesting feature: in the summer it is hardly no more Muscovites in Alexandrov, than locals though it is already other area, not Moscow, but Vladimir. The reasons are clear - surprising beauty of the nature and the city and proximity to the capital, only hour of a driving (respectively, and in Moscow there are a lot of aleksandrovets). Daily go through Alexandrov and excursion buses with foreign tourists: Ivan the Terrible`s identity causes invariable interest.
Alexandrov - the city surprising in many respects. Also keeps many secrets. Secrets begin in an extreme antiquity and take the 20th century. Someone knows that Alexandrov - the capital of 101 kilometers where the cultural figures released from camps (besides - proximity to Moscow lodged, besides it is known that several years lived in the city sisters Marina and Anastasia Tsvetaev). Someone, perhaps, knows about mass riots in the city in Soviet period (1961, information to find very difficult). Someone could see on television the documentary from a cycle “The consequence was conducted... “ (“Jaws“) about Aleksandrovsk the maniac - 1975 (the main riddle in that history is that that maniac was born in the USA). The interested Old Russian art could hear about stealing in Alexandrov of a unique icon - a three-sided icon with a secret.
But the main secrets of Alexandrov - nevertheless in the history. Who was that first aeronaut who rose in air on wooden wings and it is terrible for it punished by Ivan the Terrible? Where the well-known library of Ivan the Terrible (many consider that it is hidden in the territory of the Aleksandrovsky settlement)? The main glory of Alexandrov is that two decades the city was the oprichnik capital of Russia.
Aleksandrovsky settlement. Freedom is equal to bondage?Nobody swept away
neither to drive, nor to leave from there without the knowledge of Ioannov: for what in three versts from the Settlement nicknamed Bondage ordinary there were military guards .
(I. Karamzin. “History of the state Russian“).
And the word “settlement“ comes from the word “freedom“! In 2013 500 years Aleksandrovskoma Kremlya will be executed, and this event will be widely celebrated, perhaps, not only regionalno. The most interesting that informally “the beginning of Alexandrov“ is carried to earlier time - to Alexander Nevsky: “ stood a camp and … perhaps, and laid in the 13th century the foundation on the settlement … called by the name of the founder “.
It is authentically known that there was a country palace of the grand duke Moscow Vasily III, the father Ivan Vasilyevich here. This palace did not remain. But the word “oprichnina“ is connected with the city of Alexandrov: possession after Vasily`s death passed to his widow Elena Glinskaya, this widow share also was called “oprichnik“. And itself bad memory oprichnina was organized in this new capital where the tsar Ioann moved on rest and a bogomolya from the Moscow affairs.
There was in the Settlement a Monarchic yard, there were troops of guardsmen: “ versts in three from the Settlement stood on an outpost military guards and stopped travelers, asking everyone: who is he and why goes to bondage ? The people, derisively, replaced with this pro-rank the word “settlement“ meaning in former time freedom “. (A. K. Tolstoy). Action of the story of A. K. Tolsky “Prince the Silver“ having a subtitle “The story of times of Ioann Grozny“ happens in the Aleksandrovsky settlement. It “the settlement - the bondage“ is beaten also in other story of the Russian playwright D. V. Averskiyev - “The settlement - bondage“. Action of the opera of N. Rimsky-Korsakov “The imperial bride“ happens in the same place, in Aleksandrovskotsy to the settlement too. The main characters in the opera - guardsmen, including well-known Malyuta Skuratov.
At court not only monarchic assistants and guardsmen, but also architects, painters, musicians gathered (by the way, Ioann himself was a composer - he is known as the author of several spiritual anthems). There took place shows of brides (“a fair of brides“) - and for the tsar, and for his son.
And within nearly two decades the Settlement (“a krovopiystvenny hail“) carried out all capital functions: here the tsar married (two times from five), here killed the son (many can remember Repin`s picture “Ivan the Terrible kills the son“), here accepted foreign ambassadors from Denmark, Sweden, England, the Polish king and the Holy See, from here went war to the free city of Novgorod. The country`s first provincial pechatnya was open too here - in the Settlement. Ivan Fedorov`s pupil Andronicus Nevezha based it. Why the founder of printing house carried such improper nickname - the boor - unclear.
This Monarchic yard well remained. There are two entrances: the Yard with a throne and personal rooms. Impresses the tsar`s throne - it is, of course, the copy (the original in the Moscow Armory), but the copy good. Hours are very curious - they measure still “the Byzantine time“. And frescos, surprising on beauty, on a dome … the Last First marriage night
the tsar on wives Is unhappy
(A. Ostrovsky. The drama “Vasilisa Melentyeva“)
Ivan the Terrible got married in the Aleksandrovsky settlement two times. The third time - with Marfa Sobakina (it was poisoned in 2 weeks after a wedding), once again - with Anna Vasilchikova. Except official numerous wives Grozny had mistresses and concubines. About one of them - Vasilis Melentyev the famous playwright Alexander Ostrovsky wrote the drama. Action of this drama belongs by the time of life of Grozny in the Settlement (Vasilisa is the queen`s servant from her tower). Melentyeva is considered one more (nevenchanny) wife of Ivan. Its destiny precisely is not known except that it was sad - most likely, Vasilisa was also killed by Ivan.
In the Settlement also Ioann`s son - got married Avdotya Saburova. Detailed descriptions of these weddings remained in documents. After wedding young people went to a holiday table, in due time - in “a bed sennik“. This sennik all is penetrated by spirit of pagan ceremonialism and Christian symbolics. Sennik was upholstered with fabric, carpets and fur blankets, on walls everywhere - icons. The bed was produced from 27 rye sheaves - a sheaf as a fertility symbol. On sheaves - a carpet, on a carpet - a feather-bed, on a feather-bed - a sheet from the atlas. On corners of the room arrows were stuck, on them sables and kalatches were hung up. The bottom of a bed had a tub with millet - an abundance symbol. In this tub put two huge candles - each candle weighing up to three poods, they protected young people from damage. They burned all night long, in the morning they carried away in church. Here spent the first marriage nights (to two - three marriages) Ivan the Terrible …
About other stories and secrets can be read next time.