How we perceive the world? Three-component structure of perception
we Will begin with a joke.
- Darling you are not right! - the husband speaks.
- I am not right? You want to tell that I lie? That is I tell lies? How dog? Mother, he suky called me!
At first sight, a joke about female logic. Whether but female it? Or nevertheless “universal“? How in general perhaps similar inflating from a fly of an elephant?
The matter is that we perceive surrounding not directly, and always through a prism of the last experience - comparing, looking for similarities with already endured once. The situation can be described a saying “Everything is learned in comparison“. We always compare perceived with already available experience. But this experience (as if it was similar) concerned to that, other situation; present can be similar, but is not identical; it included other people, with other mood and circumstances.
The heroine of a joke obviously sees something special in words of the husband, as a result the harmless phrase turns into something offensive. Let`s try to understand as the brain perceives and processes information. The matter is that external events cannot directly influence our emotional reactions. The event is only an event, and depends only on our subjective view as we will estimate it and according to it we will react.
Best of all it will illustrate one more intentionally rough and therefore an indicative joke:
Every morning in one elevator two psychologists go to work. And to one another before leaving the elevator, every time spits in a face. The second is unperturbably wiped and goes further. The fellow traveler observing this scene several times did not sustain once and asked the second:
- Listen how so?! Every day he spits to you in a face, and you do nothing!!!
- And what for? - the psychologist Was surprised. - It its problem...
the External event in itself is not capable to cause in us an emotional response, it arises as reaction to our subjective perception or an assessment. That is internal factors influence our emotions much stronger, than external. Means, other people also cannot cause in us these or those emotions - for example, to upset us. Be it differently, all people would react to the same incentive equally, and it absolutely not so: what will provoke a hysterics at one will cause only easy discontent another - everything depends on internal installations of this person. But these installations are not congenital, they are formed in the course of life depending on our experience and, respectively, can be changed.
So, we have a certain Event concerning which we take out a certain Judgment, and the assessment which is already based on this Judgment causes a certain Emotional Reaction. Extremely simplifying: except for the Event something awful, the attitude of the person towards him can be perfect other. In this case we change Judgment, i.e. our assessment of this event and by that we influence our emotional reaction.
Why I consider that the relation in general can be changed? Yes because the vast majority of our installations are acquired. Once they arose, so, can disappear, more precisely - to change. Because it is not the congenital instincts which are rigidly “sewn up“ in genes and therefore invariable. Yes, it is not simple. But it is possible in principle - so, it is possible also in practice.
But we will return to our three-component model of perception, or as it is called “on - scientific“, ASP (Activating an event - Judgment - Consequences behavioural or emotional).
Also other option is possible. Often distortions not in an assessment, and already at the first stage, in the perception of an event meet: i.e. we see a certain situation from the point of view and according to it we judge it, without reflecting at all that we can put in observed at all not that sense that others. It is possible also in our joke when the wife feels an insult in words of the husband and according to them estimates while we find nothing offensive in them! But similar cases (though not always in a similar comical form) mutual misunderstanding meet in life so often that are perceived as something normal. At the same time perhaps considerably to reduce their number, having approached a problem it is thoughtful and rational.
It is possible to allocate conditionally:
the Situation as it is.
the Situation as we perceive it.
Assessment of the situation, the judgment which is taken out about it.
Emotional reaction to assessment of the situation.
In our history it, respectively:
the husband, perhaps, does not even reproach the wife but only only points to her wrongfulness;
the wife builds the “logical“ chain terminating in the name of “bough“;
even it “bough“, eventually, only the word (more precisely - the term), and an insult it becomes already in our consciousness; the heroine of a joke is internally ready to take this step, and she does it...
and emotions in the form of anger do not keep themselves waiting, in turn, generating certain actions, from the point of view of the detached onlooker, obviously not the corresponding situations. As the similar situation cannot allow
? Two complementary ways arise:
1) to learn to minimize distortions at perception of reality;
2) to learn to estimate adequately and rationally taking place events.
For example, in our case it can be: “He told that I am not right, he does not love me!“. The second part of the phrase represents that inadequate judgment which leads to emergence of negative emotions. Since the context is absent, from the statement of the husband in itself it will be difficult for detached onlooker to draw a similar conclusion. In this case it becomes on the basis of certain internal installations, conclusions etc., and these are that installations and it is possible to change.
Try and you will see how the world around you will change if to look at it other eyes!